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Full text of "Social Science (Std04 - English Medium)"


H m 

0% £*&& 3d 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Social Science 

IV Standard 






UNTOUCHABILITY 

inhuman - crime 






Dep 


artment of School Educ< 


ation 






A Publication under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 

(NOT FOR SALE) 











Government of Tamilnadu 

First Edition -2011 

(This book is Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme) 



TEXT BOOK TEAM 
AUTHORS 

Thiru S. DHILIP, 

PUMS, Melpapampadi, 
Gingee block, Villupuram District. 



Tmt. SUJATHAARUN, 
SBOA Matric HrSec School 
Anna Nagar, Chennai. 

Tmt. K. KAN AG AM AN I, 
BVB Matric Hr.Sec.School, 
Thindal, Erode District. 

Tmt. N. RAJALAKSHMI , 
SBOA Matric HrSec School, 
Anna Nagar, Chennai. 



Tmt. S. CHITRA 

PUMS, 1 7, Asthinapuram, 

Kattangolothur Block, 

Kancheepuram District. 



Tmt. A.KANCHANA, 
BVB Matric Hr.Sec.School, 
Thindal, Erode District. 

Tmt. T.MARY METILDA, 

SBOA Matric Hr Sec School, 
Anna Nagar, Chennai. 

Tmt. D. LATHAKUMARI, 
BVB Matric Hr.Sec.School, 
Thindal, Erode District. 



AUTHOR CUM REVIEWER 



Tmt. LALITHAVASUDEVAN, 

[Former Teacher) 
Bhavans Rajaji Vidhyashram,Kilpauk, Chennai. 



Tmt. SUMITRA GOWTHAMA, 

outreach co-ordinator, 

KFLChennai. 



Tmt KALPALATHA RADHAKRISHNAN, 

(Former Lecturer), 

Madras university,Chennai 



AUTHOR CUM CHAIRPERSON 

Tmt. SARADA NARENDRANATH MA B.Ed. r 
HOD. Social Science Bavans Rajaji Vidhyashram, Kilpauk, Chennai 



DTP 

Thiru. R.TAMIL SELVAN, 



ARTIST TEAM 



Thiru. MJOHN RAJA, Cuddalore . 



BOOK COVER DESIGN 

Thiru.R.BALASUBRAMANIANjheni. 



Thiru.S.MANOHARANjheni 



LAYOUT DESIGN 
Thiru. R. YUVARAJ Thiru. S. DHILIP 



Textbook Printing 
Tamilnadu Textbook Corporation, 
College Road, Chennai-600 006. 



Price: Rs. 



This book has been printed on 80 G.S.M maplitho Paper 



Printed by offset at: 



CONTENTS 



S.NO 
1 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



TOPICS PAGE NO 

WONDERS IN THE SKY 1 | 



HOME PLANET 



EARTH'S GIFT 



ELEPHANT SPEAKS 



THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE 

OUR COUNTRY 

NATIONAL SYMBOLS 

LIFE STYLES 

INVENTIONS 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES 

FESTIVALS 

SAFETY FIRST 

MY STATE 

FOLK ARTS 

CRAFTS 



• I 



17 



26 



35 
44 
56 
60 
68 
75 




79 

89 

98 

106 

114 







IT ^u 




WONDERS IN THE SKY 

Hearing the voice of the postman, Divya came out and 
received the parcel from him. 

It was a DVD from her uncle . 
She was very curious to know 
what the DVD contained. 



She inserted the DVD into her Laptop 
* The title of the DVD was "The magical universe 

UNIVERSE 

Earth is a home to all living things. It is geoid in shape. It is 
surrounded by a layer of gases called atmosphere. 

The space above the atmosphere is known as universe. 
It consists of countless number of celestial bodies which 
includes Sun, stars, Moon etc. 
Have you ever observed the sky? 





Have you counted the stars? 




STARS 

Stars are huge luminous bodies. They have their own light and 
heat .They are made of hot gases and dust . The Sun is also z star. 
When you look at the sky, at night the stars appear smaller though 

they are bigger than the sun .Why? 

Do you know what makes these stars twinkle? 



a 



When the light rays from the stars enter the atmosphere, they get 
scattered and makes the stars look as though they twinkle. $ I 




PLANETS 

Planets are celestial bodies which revolve around the sun on their 
elliptical paths called orbits. They do not have their own light and heat 
but they reflect that of the Sun. 

SATELLITES 

Satellites are objects that go around a larger object 
such as a planet. The moon is the only satellite that 
goes around the earth, our planet. The other planets too 
have their own satellites. 

ASTEROIDS 



Asteroids are also called as planetoids. 
These are big pieces of rock or rock and 
metal. They orbit around the Sun between 
Mars and Jupiter in their own elliptical orbit 
called Asteroid Belt. 





METEORS 

Meteors are a streak of bright light 
that can be seen from Earth when a 
meteorite enters the atmosphere. The 
actual object entering the atmosphere is 
called meteorite. It looks like a bright 
light. We call it the falling star or the 
shooting star. 



Falling star or shooting star is the common name for the visible 
path of a meteoroid as it enters the atmosphere to become a meteor. If a 
falling star survives impact with the Earth's surface, then it is called a 
meteorite. 





MOON 




Moon is the natural satellite of the earth. It is 
made of rocks. It has no air. The surface of the moon 
has many craters and mountains. It does not have 
its own light and heat. It reflects the light of the Sun. It 
revolves around the earth on its elliptical orbit and it 
takes : 7.3 days to complete one revolution. The 
gravity on the moon is lesserthan that of the earth. 



Chandrayan-1 was launched by India on 22.10.08. to 
probe the moon. 



SUN 



The Sun is the biggest star in our solar 
system. It is a bright star and is at the centre of 
the solar system. It is a big ball of fire and 
gives heat and light to the Earth. The light 
from the sun gives energy and strength for 
things to grow. Without the light from the sun 
the Earth would be a cold dark place. It also 
gives light to other planets of the solar 
system. 

About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while 
the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, 
including oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, and others. 




LET US TRY AND FIND OUT 



Take a rope of 1 metre length. Tie a ball to one end. Then hold the other 
end and rotate the rope above your head so that the ball moves in circles. 
The ball is in continuous motion until you hold the end of the rope. Like 
wise, the sun keeps the other planets intact because of its force of 
attraction. 




THE SOLAR SYSTEM 

The Sun is at the centre of the solar systei . 
The planets, comets, meteors and satellites 
move around the sun on a fixed path called an 
orbit. The sun and its eight planets make up 
the solar system. 



Look at the sentence, The starting letters of the planets are given 
In colour, With the clues given try and write the names of the 
eight planets and colour it. ^ - / 




My Very Efficient Mother Just aved Us ow 





1. MERCURY 



This is the smallest and closest planet to the Sun. It takes 
only 88 Earth days to go round the Sun once .It has no satellites 
and no atmosphere. 



2. VENUS 

It is the second planet in the solar family. It 

revolves around the Sun from east to west. After the 

Sun and the Moon, Venus is the brightest natural object 

in the sky. It is also called the morning star or the 

evening star because on some days we can see it with 

the naked eye just before the sunrise or sun set. 




3.THE EARTH 




The third planet from the sun is the Earth. It is the 
home to all living things as it fulfills their basic needs. 
The earth is neither too close nor too far away from the 
Sun . It supports life and hence called the living planet. 
The surface of the earth is made up of land and water. 
About 71% of the earth's surface is covered by water 
and 29% with land. 



4.MARS 



It is the fourth planet in the solar family. 
Inactive volcanoes, rocky deserts and ice 
covered poles were discovered. The minerals 
and the iron present in the soil in Mars give a 
red colour to this planet. It is a cold and dusty 
planet. It has 2 moons. 



Collect articles and pictures related to space from the newspapers and 
make an album. 






5.JUPITER 

It is the fifth and the largest planet in our solar 
system. The surface of the planet is surrounded by 
dark red and yellow clouds made of gases and 
dust.The colour of the clouds depend on the gases.lt 
takes 12 years to make one revolution. It has 16 
moons. 

6,SATURN 

Saturn is the sixth planet. It is a light planet, and mostly made 

up of helium and hydrogen. It is surrounded by gases, dust, rocks 

and icy boulders which make it look beautiful with its ring. For that 

reason, it is also known as 'ringed planet'. It has 30 moons. 





Galileo Galili was the first person to discover the rings around 
the saturn. 

7.URANUS 

Uranus is the seventh planet. Unlike the other 
planets it does not spin on its axis. It rolls around the 
sun.This planet is made up of hydrogen, along with 
methane and helium. It is bluish green in colour. The 
dust around it looks like a ring around it. It has 1 5 moons. 

8.NEPTUNE 

It is the eighth and the farthest planet.lt appears 
blue like an ocean. So the Romans named it after the 
god of the sea. It is made up of hydrogen, helium, water 
and methane. It has 1 3 known moons. 

Do you know : Pluto is not considered a planet. Find 

out why? 

Watching all this in the DVD, Divya was amazed. She clearly learnt 
about the solar system .She started writing a thanks letter to her uncle for 
sending her a DVD worth watching several times. 





EXERCISES 

LCHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 
1 . are luminous bodies. 

a)stars b)planets 

2. Satellite that moves around the earth is_ 

a)sun b)venus 

3.There are 

a)eight 



c)moon 



c)moon 

planets in the solar family. 

b)five c)ten 



4. Gas which is not present in the sun is_ 
a)methane b)hydrogen 

S.The largest planet in the solar family is 
a)mars b)jupiter 



c)oxygen 



c)neptune 



II. FILL IN THE BLANKS 

1 . The only planet which is suitable for living things is 

2. sun is a ball of . 

3.The planet that can be seen in the sky in the morning and in 

the evening is . 

4.The surface of the mars is covered with 

and dust . 

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 .Name the planets in the solar family? 

2.Why do stars appear small? 

3.Write a short note on meteors. 

4.Why is the light of the moon is not as hot as the sun? 

5. How do planets remain intact in space? 

INACTIVITIES 

1 .Conduct a quiz programme on the topic "Solar System". 

2. collect pictures related to the solar system and paste 
them in your scrap book. 









Does it surprise you when I say, while 
you study and play at school in the afternoon, 
children in America have their breakfast, and 
children in Japan would have gone back 
home from school? 

Different parts of the earth get the sunlight at different times. Do 
you know why? It is because of the Earth's movements. 
They are 

1. Rotation 

2. Revolution. 




ROTATION 

The earth spins with fts 231£" tilted position, on its own axis. It 
takes 24 hours or one day to complete one round. This movement of the 

Earth on its own axis is called rotation. The axis joins the North Pole 
and the South Pole. 

N Ay 






8 



EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON THE EARTH 

1. It causes day and night. 

2. Earth rotates from west to east [anti-clockwise], So places In the 
east experience the day first. 

3. We understand that the sun rises In the east and sets In the west 
This gives us a sense of direction. 

REVOLUTION 

The annual motion of the earth around the 
Sun along its 'elliptical' [oval shaped] orbit is called 
Revolution. That is, while spinning on its axis the 
Earth also moves around the Sun along its fixed 
path. The earth takes 365% days or 1 year to go 
round the Sun once. This movement of the earth is 
called Revolution. 



Find out your age and calculate How many times you have 
revolved around the sun from the earth? 




EFFECT OF REVOLUTION ON THE EARTH 

The major effects of the revolution is the Seasons that are caused 
i n the Earth . It changes from place to place . 





DO AND LEARN 

You can track the changing seasons for yourself. Note down the time 
of sunrise and sunset of your place everyday for a month. Graph the time 
on a line graph. Are the days getting longer or shorter? Why ? 



NORTHERN HEMISPHE 



NORTH POLE 



\ 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 



SEASONS 




^RTICAL RAYS 



-^SSwo"* 8 



^W 



SOUTH POLE 



Generally we talk about four seasons - spring [flowering season], 
summer [hot season], autumn [fall] and winter [cold season]. The season 
changes once in three months. 

SPRING 

It is a pleasant season that comes between winter 
and summer. We can see the new leaves on the trees 
The plants are in full bloom.There is a promise of new 
birth and colour in the springtime air. 



SUMMER 





Summer is the hottest season out of the four. During 
this season we have longer days. 

What comes to your mind When you hear the 
word Summer? 



Which season do you like the mostTwhy? 




AUTUMN 

Autumn is the season between summer and 
winter. The air begins to cool. The trees shed their 
leaves.This season does not occur in India 
because of its geographical location. 

WINTER 







Winter is the coldest season. But our winters 
bring us cool weather. During this season the days 
are short and nights are long. Snow fall occurs in 
some countries and hilly regions. 



SEASONS IN INDIA 

India has only three predominant seasons they are 
summer season, rainy season and winter season. 
1. SUMMER SEASON 

During summer season many parts of India are scorched with heat. 
Days are very hot. March, April and May are the summer months. 
2.WINTER SEASON 

The Indian winter is usually mild and enjoyable when compared 
to the other countries of the world. 

In our State, we have vegetables and fruits that grow in different 
landscapes during this season. 

Can you name some? 

3.RAINY SEASON 

During this season the north-east monsoon and the south 
west monsoon bring heavy rainfall to most parts of the country. 



; - 




tfe 



The longest day in the northern hemisphere-22 nd June. 
The shortest day in the northern hemisphere-22 nd December. 



W9> 




11 



r 



i 



t 







INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON HUMANS 

Our lifestyle changes according to the climate. In 
summer, we like to drink tender coconut, fruit juice, ice apple 
(nungu). We like to have hot, steaming food and beverages in 
winter. We use raincoat, gum boots and umbrellas during 
rainy season. 

■L Do you know why? 
W iL The houses in the places which receive 

heavy rainfall and snowfall have slopping roofs. 

INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON PLANTS 

Fruits, vegetables,flowers that are available in a particular season 
may not be available in the other seasons. 

In which season,do fruits like mangoes and water melon available 

in abundance? 

Are they available in winter also? 
Example: summer vegetable - drumstick 

summer flower - jasmine 
Find out the vegetables and flowers available in winter. 

INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON ANIMALS 

Winters are extreme in polar region. In 
Arctic.animals like whales move from North America to 
the coastal region of Gulf of California before winter 
starts to escape from the harsh weather. 







f 




r 



Similarly,birds like Arctic tern move in flocks to places 
where the weather conditions suitable .This 
movement is called migration. 




\. 



Polar regions remain frozen in winter. In the extreme 
cold condition food is scarce. So the Polar bears 
undergo long winter sleep called Hibernation. The 
excess fat stored in their body provides energy and 
helps them to survive during the hibernation. 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 






WEATHER 




1 . Short period of time. 

2. It changes from time to time and 
place to place. 

3. Weather condition of a place is 
decided by the factors like sun, 
wind, rain and clouds. 



CLIMATE 



%> 

'/>/ 



1. Climate is the average 
weather conditions at a place 
overa long period of time. 

2. It is stable weather 
conditions of a larger area 
and does not change easily. 

3. It means average 
temperature, rainfall etc.,. of a 
region. 



LET US FILL THE TABULAR COLUMN ! 



SEASONAL 
PLANTS 



VEGETABLES 



FRUITS 



AVAILABLE IN 
ALL SEASONS 



AVAILABLE IN 

PARTICULAR 

SEASON 



r& 







ECLIPSE 

Eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when one celestial 
object moves into the shadow of another. 
There are two types of eclipses. 

THE SOLAR ECLIPSE (solar-sun;eclipse-hidden) 

When the moon comes between the sun and the earth the shadow of 

the moon falls on the earth. People who are in that part of the earth cannot 

see the Sun. This is called solar eclipse. This can occur only on a new 

moon day. 



SUN 




SOLAR ECLIPSE 



LUNAR ECLIPSE (lunar- moon; eclipse - hidden) 

A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth blocks the sun's rays from 

reaching the moon. This can occur only when earth comes in between 

the Sun and the moon a lunar eclipse can occur only on a full moon day. 

SUN 




****» 



LUNAR ECLIPSE 




SOME INTERESTING FACTS! 

1 . If you feel cold during winter, just remember that in parts of North 
America and Europe, the temperature in winter can be as low as 
minus 50°C [ice everywhere] 

2. The ideal room temperature is 25°c. 

3. The wettest place on Earth is in India, at a place called Mawsynram 

- it receives 12 metres of rainfall every year! 

4. The world's driest place is in Chile, the Atacama desert. 





Mawsynram, Meghalaya 



Atacama Desert, Chile, S.America 



ACTIVITIES -(Pair Work) 

1 . Talk to each other and share your experiences of weather and climate. 

2. List the things necessary for different kinds of weather and climate. 

3. Observe the phases of the moon and trace it in your note books. 



»n ? §•»#(* 



4. Find out if 2 full moon days occurs in any single month this year 

5. Spot the weather, climate associated words from the grid. 


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EXERCISES 

I. FILL UP THE BLANKS 

1 . The movement of the earth on its own axis is called 



<^tS&N. 



2. The number of days the earth takes to go round the Sun is 

3. The days are short and the nights are long in . 

4. The average temperature of a particular place over a period of 

time is called . 

5. The revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the 
Earth's axis causes . 

II. WHAT IS IT? 

1 . It can be seen in the coming of new leaves on the trees. 





2. It appears as a dark circle in the night sky on certain days. 

3. It occurs when one celestial object moves into the shadow of 
another. . 

4. It is usually mild and enjoyable when compared to the other 
countries of the world . . 

5. It rotates from west to east. 







. 



*** 



?^*fe 



III. WRITE 2 THINGS YOU DO ON THE FOLLOWING DAYS, 

Sunny Day 

Cloudy Day 

Rainy Day 

Windy Day 

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . What is an axis? 

2. Why do we get seasons on earth? 

3. How does the moon get different shapes? 

4. What happens when the Earth comes in between the Sun and the 

Moon? 

5. Name the seasons of India. 






Natural resources are materials that are available naturally on the 

earth.The Sun, air, land, water, natural gas, coal, oil, petroleum, 

minerals, wood, topsoil, fauna, flora, forests and wildlife are not made by 

human beings. Therefore they are natural resources. 

Identify the resources in the pictures and complete the boxes provided. 




THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RESOURCES 



RENEWABLE RESOURCES 

o 

4 WATER SUNLIGHT 

NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES 





LAND 



i 





MINERALS - GOLD PETROLEUM 

17 





AIR 




COAL 









1. RENEWABLE RESOURCES 

Renewable resources are those that can be used again and again 
Eg. Air, Water, and Sunlight. 
2.NON- RENEWABLE RESOURCES 

Non renewable resources are those that cannot be produced again 
and again Eg. Coal, Petroleum. These natural resources are found 
under the surface of the earth. With every advancement in technology, 
our needs are growing and we tend to over indulge with the available 
natural resources. It is our responsibility to use the resources 
judiciously and conserve some for the future generations. 

THINK. 



4* 

If i 






Ravi's motheil Asked him 
to eat 
one a day 



^gave him 10 
r J chocolates 



■ 



greedy Ravi ate 

all the &k 

chocolates * v ->* , 
within a day 



f 



The next day he 

did not have any 

chocolate to eat 

why did 

this happen?^ 

Think! 




£)| 



^ 
^ 



V 



\ 



WATER 

Water is important for all living beings. We depend on 

monsoon for rain. Though 71% of earth is covered by 

water only 2% is fresh water which is usable Therefore 

-. our main source of water is rain. Rain water gets 

> collected in rivers, lakes, ponds etc.and it is used for 

^ domestic purposes, irrigation, and also for the industries. 

So it is our duty to conserve water. 



j 



Look at this picture and discuss in groups about the 
method of rainwater harvesting. 




HIRAKUD DAM 




The Bhakra Nangal Dam is the largest Dam in India. 
The Hirakud dam is the longest Dam in the world. 



j 





METHODS OF CONSERVING WATER 

Rain Water Harvesting means the accumulation and storing of 
rainwater. It recharges the groundwater. Rainwater collected from 
roofs of houses, tents etc can make important contribution to drinking 
water. 

Dams should be built across the rivers to prevent floods and 
to store water. 

We should not throw garbage and industrial wastes into, 
rivers, lakes, etc., to prevent water pollution. 

March 22 nd is celebrated as World Water Day . 
Man consumes nearly 125 litres of water a day. 

SOIL 
Soil is an important natural resource. It takes thousands of years to 
form a layer of soil. It is formed by breaking up of rocks and decayed 
organic matter. They vary from region to region depending on the 
surface, climate and rainfall. 




TYPES OF SOIL 
The main types of soil found in different regions of India are 




ALLUVIAL SOIL BLACK SOIL RED SOIL LATERITE SOIL DESERT SOIL 




SOIL FERTILITY 
Soil contains dead plants and animals, minerals, water and air which 
make the soil rich and fertile. It is the top layer of the earth's surface 
on which plants and trees grow. 




1. Soil has to be tested periodically to check the fertility of the soil. 

2. use organic fertilisers instead of chemical fertilisers to retain the 
fertility. 

3. The effluents from the industries should be treated before it is let out. 

4. Overgrazing on the hill slopes leads to soil erosion. It should be 
controlled. 

5. Grow trees and plants to prevent soil erosion 

6. Avoid using plastic. 



The following methods of farming are practised to prevent soil 
erosion and to increase the fertility of the soil. 

METHODS OF FARMING 

TERRACE FARMING 

The hillslopes are cut into broad steps called 
terraces and farming is done. It helps to slow down 
the flow of water. It reduces soil erosion and 
land slides. The crops that are grown here are coffee, 
tea and underground vegetables. 

Do you wish to become a farmer? Give one reason for your answer. 





CROP ROTATION 

Successive planting of different crops on the same 
land is called crop rotation. This helps us to improve 
soil fertility and to control insects and diseases. In a 
rotation a cultivated crop is alternated with a legume. 
Example. Rice, Groundnut, Sugarcane. It balances the fertility of the soil. 




MIXED FARMING 





. 




11 1 


.■•:- 










• 












% 











Mixed Farming means combining two 
independent crops on the same farm. They support 
each other and add to the farmers' profitability. 
Example: Groundnut and Bengalgram. 



These methods protect the fertility of the soil 

AIR 

Air is one of our basic needs. All living things need air to breathe. 
Air consists of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases. Fresh air keeps us 
healthy. It is an important natural resource. 

In Coimbatore,Tiruppur, Tirunelveli, 
Kanyakumari and Theni districts wind is 
harnessed, to produce electricity. 

But unfortunately the air is polluted by dust, smoke etc. due to 
increase in number of industries and vehicles. It affects human beings, 
plants, animals and the atmosphere as a whole. 




The energy we get from the sun is called solar energy.lt is the eco- 
friendly energy of the future. Today, solar energy is used to heat water 
and light up homes.solar energy is tapped to burn LED bulbs ! 







WAYS TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION 

There is a need to keep the air clean and healthy. 

1 . Vehicles should run on cleanerfuels like CNG. (Compressed 
Natural Gas) 

2. We should not burn garbage plasties and other wastes in the 
open. 

3. Factories should filter and check the harmful gases before it is 
let out into the atmosphere. 





FOREST 

A Forest is a large area of land thickly covered by trees. One fifth 
of the land in India is covered by forests. Forests improve the quality 
of soil and make it fertile. The roots help in reducing soil erosio 

They provide us with food, timber, medicines and are homes 
to many animals and birds. They also provide raw materials 
for industries. These rich flora and fauna are our natural resources 

These forests reduce air pollution and 
increase the fertility of the soil. We need to conserve our 
forests to prevent flood, landslides and soil erosion.! 





METHODS OF CONSERVING FORESTS 

1 . Should prevent over grazing by cattle. 

2. Afforestation (planting of trees). 

The government has made a 
conscious effort to safeguard our 
environment by launching many 
programmes to plant more trees . 







u 



Amazon forest in South America provides 25% of oxygen 
The age of the trees are known from its rings in the bark 



GLOBAL WARMING 

Global warming means the increase in average temperature of 
Earth's surface and oceans, due to human actions like emission of gases 
from factories, vehicles, burning forests etc. This rise in temperature 
changes the climate, melts the ice sheets and there is a rise in the sea 
level. This will cause danger to earth - our planet. 

So, it is the responsibility of every one of us to take care and save 
the earth from any such danger. 

Draw a picture and write a slogan on the topic "Save our earth" 








ACTIVITIES 
We are the water bodies. Can you find us in the word grid ? 



*. 




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II. Find out the difference between the two pictures and Write the 
difference in the given pollution column. 




LAND 



WATER 



AIR 




III. Initiate a discussion on Earth and its resources. 

IV Encourage them to use water judiciously at home and at the school. 

V. Ask them to find out the types of Soil in their region. 

VI. Have a debate on the hazards of Air pollution. 
VII Teach them the benefits of growing trees. 

VI I I. Let each class sow and maintain a plant at school. 

IX. Collect data of the dams of India and discuss the advantages and 
disadvantages of dams. 

EXERCISES 
I.CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. 

1. Water and sunlight are renewable / non renewable resources 

2. Soil erosion increases / decreases the fertility of the soil. 

3. We need / do not need air to breathe. 

4. We must plant/ not plant more trees. 

II.SAY WHETHER THESE SENTENCES ARE TRUE OR FALSE 

1 -There are two types of resources ( ) 

2.Coal is a renewable resource ( ) 

3.0ur main source of water is rain ( ) 

4-The government does not encourage people to grow more trees ( ) 

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . Write any four methods by which soil can be conserved. 

2. Name the two social forestry programmes. 

3. How can air pollution be avoided? 

4. What is global warming? 

5. Suggest ways to protect our planet. 

IV. UN SCRAMBLE THESE WORDS TO GET THE USES OF WATER. 
1.1 D N G K R I N 

2. C K G O O I N 

3. G S A HI W N 

4. S R P C O 






I am Velan, an Indian elephant (also known as Asian elephant). 
I am an old tusker [male elephant]. I have lived long and have seen 
many events and changes. Now I am very old and live in the Mudumalai 
Sanctuary. | 1AfU ^ t - ^ 7 



What is a sanctuary? 





A Sanctuary is a protected area where the birds and 
animals live in their natural habitats. 

Listen to my story .. 

Actually I was born in the Nilgiri Hills. 
The forests in the Nilgiris are thick and have a 
variety of trees. The river Moyar flows 
through this region. This river remains as a 
border between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 
We live in groups called herd. Like any other 
group ours also had a tusker as a leader. 

We were also a close knit group like others. In a herd the young 
ones are looked after very carefully. I really enjoyed all the fuss that 
they made on me. I still remember the way I rolled in the mud and 
played in the water enjoying life with the others. 

I loved eating the tender bamboo shoots and the wild sugarcane 

that grew in the forest. I cherish those days; they will remain evergreen in 

my memory! 

They shifted me to 

the Mudumalai sanctuary 

as I have become old. I live 

safely now. If you come 

here you can see me. 

What beautiful days they were! 
26 






I must tell about my life in Mudumalai. Look at this man. 
He is Palanisami. His family has lived in the forest foryears. 
Today he works for the forest department that looks after the 
forests. His job is to make sure that there are no forest fires, 
to see how many animals are there and to bring sick animals 
to the animal hospital. He informs the department if he sees 
people hunting animals. He takes tourists on trips to certain 
areas where they can see the wildlife and birds. 



He also makes sure that tourists do not throw plastics 
and garbage in the protected area. He also takes care of me 
and the others like me. He has taken a special training to work 
in the forests. He knows a lot about the sanctuaries and 
national parks in India. He talks about them enthusiastically 
and interestingly. Just listen to him. 

Hello! My name is Palanisami. Velan has already told you about 
me. I just want to add one more thing about me. Right from my childhood 
I always wanted to be a part of this forest and I enjoy being here. Earlier I 
have worked in a few other Sanctuaries and National Parks. But out of 
interest I gather information about the others. I am very happy to share 
them with you. 

1. MUDUMALAI SANCTUARY AND NATIONAL PARK 

'Mudumalai 1 means 'ancient hill-range. ' It was made a sanctuary as 
early as 1940. The bird life is beautiful. It is also one of the Tiger 
Reserves. The road connecting Mysore and Ooty is in the sanctuary. 
The speeding vehicles do run over the crossing animals, particularly at 

nights. 

ft The tourists who travel in the 






vehicles throw plastic bottles and f /?/$%& 

bags. This affects the animals. 





2. INDIRA GANDHI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY - 
NATIONAL PARK 

It is in the Anamalai Hills The hills are high and the 
endemic forest is the Shola, with bamboo too! 

Look at the animals. 
Which is your favourite one? 




There are many species like 




TIGER 



i 



^WHi 




ELEPHANTS 



GAUR 



SAMBAR DEER 



LEOPARD 







JACKAL 



FLYING SQUIRREL 



PALM CIVET 



Bird species like 




BARBETS BABBLERS 

can also be sighted. 



DRONGOS 



PEAFOWL 




3.P0INT CALIMERE [KODIKKARAI] SANCTUARY 

This is a coastal sanctuary. It has sandy coasts, backwaters. Apart from 
animals this sanctuary is also famous for the sea turtle Olive Ridley 
which lays its eggs on the shore here. 




OLIVE RIDLEY OLIVE RIDLEY EGGS 

During winter, thousands of migratory birds visit the sanctuary. Do you 
know what migration is? When the climate gets very cold or hot birds go to 
a place that is suitable to them. Sometimes they travel thousands of 
kilometers for this. 





PLOVERS 



WADERS 





GULLS DUCKS 
These birds spend the winter here. Thousands of greater 
flamingo also flock here. The migratory birds are best seen between 
Novemberand March. Whydothese birds migrate? Think 

29l 



% 




SRIVILLIPUTHUR GRIZZLED SQUIRREL 
WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

Fhis Sanctuary spreads over an area of 480 sq.km. It . 

was opened in 1 989 to protect the grizzled squirrel The 

endangered grizzled squirrel is the key species. This squirrel 

is larger than the three-stripped palm squirrel and it is 

brownish grey in colour. Its under portion is dirty white and its 

tail has white bands. This squirrel prefers tamarind, vagai, 

naval, near maruthu and neem trees. 

5.GULF OF MANNAR MARINE NATIONAL PARK 

Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park is part of the 
1 0,500 sq.km. of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve 
It Is situated on the south-east coast of 
India. It Is known for Its rich marine life. 
Marine elements like algae types, sea 

grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves 

combined with mudflats, estuaries, allow 3,600 kinds of 

plants and animals to exist 

6. GUINDY NATIONAL PARK 

The Guindy National Park is the eigth smallest 
national park in India and it is in the heart of ChennaL 
it was the hunting place of Gilbert Rodericks for the 
British. Tamilnadu Forest Department undertook the 
park in the year 1958. The park has more than 350 
types of plants. 

Have you ever been to Guindy National Park? 

With whom did you go? 










Name the animals and binds you saw there? 




30 



We can see Verities of animals like deer, Mongoose, fox etc. 







of birds are found here 






About 350 species of plants are found here 
The Snake park is its special attraction. 



7. KOONTHANKULAM SANCTUARY 

Koonthankulam is a village 38 kms away from the 
Tirunelveli town. People of this village have always 
been the protectors of birds that visit the village and the 
nearby ponds and lakes. They do not burst crackers 
during Deepavall. For they fear that It may disturb the 
birds there. Even when the chicks tall off the nests by 
accident the villagers take care of them. 
5 DECLARED NATIONAL PARKS IN TAMIL NADU. /CQ ^ 

I.Indira Gandhi National Park [1989] ^^^9 i?? 

ZMudumalai National Park. [1990] 

3. Mukurthl National Park.[1 982] Igjr 

4.Gurf of Mannar Marine National Park [1 980] ^["V 

5.Guindy National Park. [1976] 

There are 7 wildlife sanctuaries and 13 bird sanctuaries. I will give you 
the list; you can go through them leisurely. I am sure you enjoyed 
listening to me as much as I enjoyed talking to you.Here is the list for you. 






7 WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AT TAMILNADU (\ 

1 . Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, a Giant Squirrel Sanctuary \ * 
near Srivilliputhur, in Virudhunagar district. Pv 

2. Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary is near Indira Gandhi National / 
Park in Coimbatore District. 

3. Kalakkad Wildlife Sanctuary in Tirunelveli District is part of the 
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. 

4. Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary is a tiger habitat in Kanyakumari 
district. 

5. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary in Nilgiris district is close to 
Mudumalai National Park. 

6. Sathyamangalam Sanctuary in Erode District, was made a 
sanctuary in 2008. 

7. Vallanadu Wildlife Sanctuary. Black Buck Antelope 
sanctuary is in Thoothukudi District. ( 

13 BIRDS SANCTUARIES AT TAMILNADU 



1 . Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary 

2. Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary 

3. Karaivetti Bird Sanctuary 

4. Karikili Bird Sanctuary 

5. Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary 

6. Melselvanur-Keelselvanur 
Bird Sanctuary j 



- Ramnadapuram District 

- Ramnadapuram District 

- Perambalur District 

- Kancheepuram District 

- Thirunelveli District 

Ramnadapuram District 




7. Point Kalimar Bird Sanctuary ^^-Tanjore District 



8. Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary 

9. Udhayamarthandapuram 
Bird Sanctuary 

lO.Vaduvoor Bird Sanctuary 
H.Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary 
12.Vellode Bird Sanctuary 
13.Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary 



Thiruvallur District 

Thiruvarur District. 
Nagapattinam District 
Kancheepuram District 
Erode District. 
Sivagangai District 






T 



^ 




Apart from these 13 birds sanctuaries we have Veralimalai Peacock 
Sanctuary-Pudukottai district. Kallaperambalur lake located in Tanjore 
district is recently announced bird sanctuary by the forest department. 

With the help of Tamilnadu political map from page no 102 

Draw 4 *^^ 'Q^^jf^ in the districts where we find birds sanctuaries . 
Draw nCTD J\ (] ,<^s in the districts where we find wild life sanctuaries. 




EXERCISES 



I. FILL IN THE BLANKS 



1 .The sanctuary that protects the shola forest is 
2. The sanctuary that protects the turtles is 



3The sanctuaries where people protect birds are 



4The sanctuary that protects a variety of squirrels is 
5The sanctuary that is in a city is 



6.The sanctuary that protects marine life is 

7The sanctuary where many migratory birds come is 



II. COLLECT FEATHERS OF DIFFERENT BIRDS AND DECORATE 
THE PEACOCK BY PASTING THE FEATHERS. 








THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE 

August 15th is the most important day for the people of India. It is the 
day which is celebrated with pride and patriotism by every Indian citizen. 
What is so special about this day? 

It was on this date in 1947A.D that India was declared a free 
and independent nation by the British. 
But how did India come under the British? 

In 1600A.D, Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to trade freely 
with the countries of the east. The East India Company came into India. 

It first established a trading centre at Surat and then began building 
factories. During this time India was divided into several small states and 
there was no unity among the rulers. The East India Company took 
advantage of the situation and began to interfere in the Indian affairs. Soon 
they conquered the entire country and India became the market for the 
English goods. 

The Indian weavers suffered a lot, as 
the machine-made cloth of the British 
were sold at a cheaper rate in the Indian 
markets. 
THE VELLORE MUTINY -1806 

1 . The main reasons for the 
mutiny were the changes in the 

sepoy dress code. 

2. Hindus were prohibited 

from wearing religious marks on 
their foreheads and Muslims 
were required to shave their 
beard and trim their moustache. 





3. The plan of restoring the kingdom of Mysore to the sons of 
Tipu Sultan was also a reason for this mutiny. 



SEPOY MUTINY- 1857 

Though there were many causes for 
this mutiny, the immediate cause was 
when the sepoys were asked to use 
cartridges greased with cow and pig fat. 
This affected the religious sentiments of 
both the Hindus and the Muslims. 
Bahadur Shah, Nana Sahib, Tantia Tope 
and Rani Lakshmi Bai played an 
important role in this revolt. 




■^ 







% " 






c. 



The British put down these revolts with their military power [armed 
forces]. The power of the East India Company was transferred to the 
Queen of England and the British became a strong power in India. 



THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS -1885 

The Indian National Congress was founded upon 
the suggestion of Allen octavian Hume a British official 
in 1885 in Mumbai. The aims of this congress were to 
include the educated Indians in the British 
administration in India and to bring economic reforms. 
This organization later became the stirring force of the 
freedom movement. 



Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath 
Banerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai were some of the early 
leaders of the Congress. These leaders united the people for the cause 
of freedom with patriotic messages. Poet Rabindranath Tagore's 
patriotic songs brought the people together to a great extent. 





THE PARTITION OF BENGAL 1905 




BURNING FOREIGN CLOTHES 



The British were worried about the 
growth of nationalistic [patriotic] feelings 
among the Indians. In order to prevent this, 
Lord Curzon divided Bengal (the source of all 
revolts) into East and West in 1905. The 
eastern part of Bengal had Muslim majority and 
the western part had Hindu majority. By doing 
so he tried to destroy Hindu-Muslim unity. 



This partition of Bengal angered the people and led to the Swadeshi 
movement Indians began to use only goods made in India and 
boycotted [refused to use] the British goods by throwing them into 
bonfires lit in public places. 

JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE 1919 

The British passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 to control the 

growing nationalist movements. To show their disagreement to 

this act in a peaceful way more than 10,000 men, women and 

children had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh on the 13 th April 

1919. General Dyer, a British official arrived with a troop and 
gave shooting orders on the innocent unarmed people. 
This ruthless massacre became the turning point in the 
freedom movement. 

THE NON COOPERATION MOVEMENT 1920 

Gandhiji used the Jallianwala Bagh incident as an opportunity to 
unite the people. He felt that if the Indians refused to cooperate with 
the British, their rule in India would collapse and India would become 
free. So he launched the Non Cooperation Movement in 1920. 





THE CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT 1930 

In 1930 Gandhiji launched the civil disobedience movement. He 
asked people to disobey all the British laws. Gandhiji took up Dandi 
March (Salt Satyagraha) against the tax on salt because Indians were 
asked to pay money to the British in order to produce salt! In the south, 
under the leadership of Rajaji (C. Rajagoplachari) people marched from 
Tiruchi to Vedaranyam to break the salt tax law. 
THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT 1942 

In 1942 during the Second World War the British wanted India to 
join the war. India demanded complete independence in return. Since the 
British were not willing Gandhiji launched Quit India Movement in 1 942. 

INDIA BECAME INDEPENDENT 1947 

Gandhiji asked the people to 'Do or Die 1 . The movement gained 

great momentum. Slowly the British agreed to leave India. Thus India 

attained Independence on the 15 th . August 1947. Jawaharlal Nehru 

became the first Prime Minister of independent India. 

LEADERSHIP AND INSPIRATIONS 

MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI 

He was born on 2 nd October 1869 at Porbandar (Gujarat). He took 

his early education in India and went to England to study Law. In 1893 he 

went to South Africa to practise law. During his stay there he saw the 

racial discrimination and oppression committed against the Indians and 

began to fight against the whites. 

It was only then the concept of Satyagraha (satya- truth, agraha- 
fight) which is based on truth and non-violence, evolved in him. 

He came back to India in 1 91 5 and visited 
every nook and corner of India and set up the 
Sabarmati Ashram in Gujarat in 1916. He called 
the oppressed section of people as Harijan or 
children of God. He worked for the revival of 
village craft. He popularised charka and khadi 
as symbols of self-reliance 





JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

He was born on the 14 th November 1889. He was the* 
son of Motilal Nehru who was one of the important 
Congress leaders. Nehru studied in England. 

In 1912 he joined the National Movement. He was an ardent follower of 
Gandhiji and his principles. He took part in the national movements and 
was sent to jail several times. He believed that improving the condition 
of the common people can not be separated from freedom struggle. He 
became the first Prime Minister of independent India. 

V.O. CHIDAMBARAM PILLAI 

V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was bom in Ottapidaram, in 
Tutucorin district of Tamil Nadu, on the 5 th . September 1872. 
He is also known by his Tamil initials Vaa. Oo. Ce. He was a 
lawyer and a trade union leader. He entered politics in 1905 

soon after the Partition on Bengal and became a member of 
Indian National Congress. He was the first Indian to 
start a Steam Navigation Company that ran a ferry 
service between Tuticorin(Thoothukudi) and Colombo.. 
This Swadesi Steam Navigation Company was bold enough to 
compete with the British trading ships. For this bold action of his even 
today we call him 'Kappalotiya Tamilan 1 He was accused of talking and 
writing against the British and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was 
illtreated by the British in the prison. 

THILLAIAADI VALLIAMMAI 

She was bom on the 22 nd February1898 at Thillaiaadi in Nagapatnam 
district. Her parents migrated to South Africa from India. Valliammai had 
never been to India. Right from her childhood she had seen only hatred for 
Indians and the racial discrimination. As a young girl she joined her mother in 
the march against the marriage law passed by the South African 
government. Along with the others she was put in jail where she took ill. - 

Later she died at the age of 16. Gandhi said that her sacrifice 
gave him the inner force to fight for Indian Independence. 





j39| 



INDIA 



Establishment of 



East lindia company 1600 A. D 




Jallian wallahbagh massacre 1 91 9 A.D fej 

General Dyre !> -. 



Freedom struggle through 
( i- _^Non violence 





TIME LINE CHART 



YEAR 


EVENTS 


1600 


Establishment of East India Company 


1806 


Vellore Mutiny 


1857 


Sepoy Mutiny 


1905 


Partition of Bengal 


1919 


Jallianwallabagh Massacre 


1920 


Non Cooperation Movement 


1930 


Civil Disobedience Movement 


1942 


Quit India Movement 




1947 


India gained Independence 


1950 


India became a Republic 











ACTIVITIES f^ r . 

WORK IN GROUPS j^Jfcfef 

Find out the various steps through which our National flag " 

was developed - draw and show. 

Collect pictures of yourfavourite freedom fighter and make 

a chart to say why he/she is your favourite. 




i -"' A-A 




'cr> 



-rz$ 



II. FIND THE LEADERS HIDDEN IN THE GRID 



1.V. 
2.V 

3. N 

4. G. 

5. G. 
6.T 



A 


V 


R 


D 


B 


J 


N 


D 


N 


V 


A 


A 


O 


O 


C 


E 


L 


S 


E 


L 


D 


G 


s 


N 


H 


B 


L 


O 


L 


M 


T 


E 


C 


R 


J 


G 


W 


I 


A 


C 


Q 


U 


U 


Y 


O 


G 


A 


N 


D 


H 


I 


F 


T 


K 


X 


M 


W 


E 


Y 


G 


H 


C 


A 


A 


M 


N 


Y 


S 


I 


F 


N 


L 


C 


A 


W 


Q 


S 


E 


D 


J 


E 


V 


I 


R 


I 


F 


W 


U 


D 


S 


T 


U 


J 


T 


A 


G 


O 


R 


E 




EXERCISES 

L COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 

1 . The East India Company established its first trading 
centre in India at 



*Q^, 




2. The main reason for the 1806 Vellore Mutiny was change in 

3. A.O. Hume a British official suggested the formation of 



4. Rabindranath Tagore brought the people together through 
his . 

5. In 1920 Gandhiji launched . 



-/ 



II. GIVE REASON 

1. East India Company began to interfere in the Indian affairs. 

2. Jawaharlal Nehru worked for the welfare of the common people 

3. Thillaiaadi Valliammai was imprisoned. 

4. V.O. Chidambaram Pillai is known as 'Kappalotiya Tamilan' 




.FILL THE TABULAR COLUMN 



MUTINY 


YEAR 


REASON 


YOUR OPINION 


VELLORE 








SEPOY 









IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . What was the immediate cause for the Sepoy Mutiny? 

2. Why did Gandhi organize the Non Cooperation Movement? 

3. Write three sentences about Salt Sathyagraha. 

4. When did the concept of sathyagraha evolve in Mahathma Gandhi? 











OUR COUNTRY ff 

India is a sub-continent - it is a part of the continent, Asia. It is 
located to the north of Equator. India is big - it is the seventh largest 
country in the world. It is second only to China in population. The 
southern part of the country is a peninsula - surrounded on three sides by 
water, rfs total surface area is 32,87,263 sq. km. 

ASIA 




®L Locate India in the Asia map and colour it. 
3J. Write the neighbouring countries of India 



% 



TIM 





44 



INDIA'S PHYSICAL FEATURES 

The land features in India are not the same everywhere. They 
vary from place to place. India has dry deserts, high mountains, vast 
stretches of plains and plateaus. Many rivers originate from the 
mountains and plateaus and flow into the plains. 



India physical map 




Indian 



INDIA CAN BE DIVIDED INTO SIX PHYSICAL DIVISIONS. 

I.The Northern Mountains, 2.The Northern Plains, 3. The Great Indian Desert 
4.The Plateau Region, S.The Coastal Regions, G.The Island Regions. 







45 




1.THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS 

The Himalayas, the world's highest mountain ranges, are located in the 
northern part of India. Himalaya means 'the abode of snow'. Mount 
Everest, the world's highest peak, is located in this region. 

Himadri or the Greater Himalayas, Himachal or the 
Middle Himalayas, and the Shiwalik, the Outer 
Himalayas are the three ranges of mountains in this 
region. Rivers like Ganga T Yamuna, Brahmaputra Satluj 
and Indus originate from here. The popular hill stations 
of this region are Mussoorie, Shimla and Darjeeling. 
IMPORTANCE OF THE HIMALAYAS 

1 . They protect us from the cold winds blowing from the north. 

2. They bring heavy rainfall to the northern plains. 

3. The rivers originating from the Himalayas make our land fertile 

2.THE NORTHERN PLAINS 

To the south of the Himalayas lie the Northern Plains or the Indo- 
Gangetic plains. It is a flat region watered by the Himalayan Rivers. 
These rivers deposit silt or alluvial soil on this plain, which makes the 
region very fertile. It is very fertile and many crops like wheat, rice, sugar 
cane and cotton are grown here. 

The delta made by Ganga and 
Brahmaputra is called Sundarbans. It is the 
largest in the world. This region is thickly 
populated. Some important places located in 
the region are Delhi, Agra, Allahabad and 
Kolkata. 

3.THE GREAT INDIAN DESERT 

The sandy area known as the Thar or the Great Indian Desert lies to 
the north west of India. It receives very little rainfall and so is very dry and 
sandy. Hot winds and sand storms are very common here. 





These winds make sand hills called sand dunes. They keep shifting 

every time there is a strong wind. There are a few oases in this area. [An 

oasis is a green and fertile place in a desert or wasteland.] 

A few crops are grown around the oasis. People rear camel and cattle. 

People keep moving from place to place because of shortage of food and 

water. Now the Indra Gandhi canal supplies water to the farmers of 

Rajasthan. Camel is called the Ship of the Desert as it can walk easily in 

the sand and go without water and food for days together. 




s 



DECCAN PLATEAU 




4. THE PLATEAU REGION 

Plateaus are also called table land.They are elevated portion of the 

earth The plateau region of India is divided into three main parts.they are 

Malwa plateau in the west, Chota Nag pur plateau in the north and Deccan 

plateau in the south. 

The southern part of India forms the Deccan Plateau. It lies 

between western ghats and eastern ghats . The plateau is surrounded by 

chains of hills called the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats 

in the east. This plateau slopes from west to east. 

Important rivers of this region are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, 

and Cauvery. These rivers start in the west and fall into the Bay of Bengal 

in the east. The west flowing rivers Narmada and Tapi start in the east 

and fall into the Arabian Sea. Most parts of this region have black soil. 

Cotton and sugarcane are the major crops here. 




5.THE COASTAL REGIONS 

Narrow strips of plains are found along the east coast and the west 
coast of India. They are called The Eastern Coastal Plains and the 
Western Coastal Plains. The two coasts meet at Kanniyakumari. 



COASTAL REGIONS 

H r. 





6THE ISLAND REGIONS 

An island is a piece of land surrounded by water on all sides. 
The islands that belong to India are Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea 
and the Andaman and Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal. 

INDIA POLITICAL DIVISIONS 

India is a democratic Republic. It has been divided into smaller areas 
called States and Union Territories for effective administration. We 
have a Central Government which looks after the affairs of the whole 
country and the affairs of the state by the State Governments. 

At the state level the governments are elected by the people of that 
state. We have 28 states and 6 union Territories and New Delhi 
National capital territory. 

In which direction is the capital of India located? 

If a tourist from a foreign country visits India where would you take 
him/ her? Why? 




Union Territories are ruled directly by the Central Government. The 
President of India appoints an Administrator or Lieutenant-Governor for 
each union territory. 

INDIA POLITICAL MAP 



N 






I Kamataka 






Andaman and 




^Bsnflaluru * 




~Q Bay of Bengal 


1 1 


Arabian Sea 




M 








V 


ipordicheny 








% f 









L 3kj5l"adwBep 



Indian Ocean 












With the help of map in Page 49 ,Write the capitals for the 
following states 


l 




1. 


Andhra Pradesh 


J^j/^^T'^'y 


ft • 


2. 


Arunachal Pradesh 


^ jf^jj 


'Ik 


3. 


Assam 






4. 


Bihar 


1 ' 


5. 


Chattisgarh 


/ 


6. 


Goa 






7. 


Gujarat 




8. 


Haryana 




9. 


Himachal Pradesh 




10. 


Jammu and Kashmir 




11. 


Jharkhand 




12. 


Karnataka 






13. 


Kerala 








14. 


Madhya Pradesh 








15. 


Maharashtra 








16. 


Manipur 








17. 


Meghalaya 








18. 


Mizoram 








19. 


Nagaland 








20. 


Orissa 








21. 


Punjab 








22. 


Rajasthan 








23. 


Sikkim 








24. 


Tamil Nadu 








25. 


Tripura 








26. 


Uttar Pradesh 








27. 


Uttarakhand 








28. 


West Bengal 








Find out and write the names of Union Territories and its capitals from 
the map , 



SLNO 


UNION TERRITORY 


CAPITAL 


















































' 








• 



FACTS 
1. India, got its name from Indus Valley. 



2. The snow - clad Himalayas have been described by Kalidasa as 
the 'King of Mountains' 

3. Camel is called the ship of the desert because it is used as "beast 
of burden" in the deserts. 

4. Most of the beautiful cities of India are located on the plateaus, 
Example: Gwalior, Bhind, Morainia and Shirpuri. 

5. Rajasthan is popularly known as 'the most colourful desert in the 
world', it is the Number one Tourist destination. 

6. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands consists of a group of 204 
Islands. Where as Lakshadweep has 43 islands. 

7. Port Blair, the Capital city of the Andamans was the dreaded site of 
the cellular jail used by the British for banished convicts. 

8. Marina beach in Chennai is the Second Longest Beach in the 
world. 

9. India is the largest democracy in the world and one of the most 
ancient civilizations. 

10-Uttarkhand is the last State to be formed in India. 





LABEL THE STATES AND ITS CAPITALS IN THE GIVEN MAP. 




,■ 




ACTIVITIES (WITH THE HELP OF ATLAS) 

1 .Write the names of the states and capitals that begins with the 
letters given. 

States Capitals 

S 



G. 
O 



H. 

I_ 

M_ 

L 




2.Which is the smallest state in India? 

3. write down the name of the mountain ranges,islands,valleys, rivers, 

plateau in India. 
4. Which is the southern tip of India? 

How would you reach it from your place? 

5. A cultural dance troop starts from Tamilnadu by train to give 
performance at NewDelhi the next day. 

list the states they have passed through 



6. Collect the waste packets of household items. Find out where the 

product was manufactured and paste a piece of that cover in the 
manufactured state. 

7. Write the boundaries of India in the word web.. 






VL 



N 




MARK THE FOLLOWING IN THE GIVEN MAP 

1 . Deccan plateau 

2. Thar desert 

3. Coastal plains 

4. Mountain ranges 






N 





EXERCISES 

I. UNSCRAMBLE THE WORDS AND FILL IN THE BLANKS. 

1 . 1 am the largest desert in India (HART) 

2. 1 am an island region of India (EEWDPALKAHS) 

3. 1 am the highest peak (TESEREV) 



I. FILL IN THE BLANKS 

1 . and 

start in the Himalayas. 
2. The 



<^5& 



rivers 




is called the ship of the desert 



3. The Northern plains are also called the 

4. The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie in the_ 

5. The coastal plains meet at 



III.MATCH THE FOLLOWING 

I.Thar 

2.Andaman and Nicobar 

3. Himalayas 

4. Northern plains 



island ( ) 

desert ( ) 

Fertile plains ( ) 

mountains ( ) 




IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . Why are the Himalayas important to India? 

2. The rivers in the Northern plain have water even in summer 
when there is no rain - explain why. 

3. What is a sand dune? How do sand dunes get shifted? 

4. Why do most rivers in the Deccan plateau flow from west to east? 

5. Why has India been divided into States and Union territories? 

6. How are Union Territories governed? 








NATIONAITSYMBOLS 

The national symbols of India are unique. They represent the spirit, 
values and ideals of our nation. They help us to develop the feeling of 
universal brotherhood. We as Indians should always respect these 
symbols. 
NATIONAL FLAG 

The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron at the top, 
white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. 

The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to 
three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue 
wheel which represents the chakra. It is adopted from 
the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its 
diameter approximates to the width of the white band 
and it has 24 spokes. 

The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent 
Assembly of India on 22 July 1947. 

NATIONAL EMBLEM 

The National Emblem is a symbol of our country's authority. It was 
adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950. 

The emblem consists of three visible lions, the 
fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in 
relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right 
and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on 
extreme right and left. 

The words Satyameva Jayate, meaning Truth 
$\ was adopted to show the world that 
India is a peace loving country. 







NATIONAL ANTHEM 

Our National Anthem Jana Gana Mana.... 
was written by the great poet and writer 
Rabindranath Tagore. The song which Tagore wrote 
had 5 stanzas out of which only the first 14 lines 
were chosen as our National Anthem . 

We should sing it within 52 seconds. It fills us with a strong 
sense of pride and unity. 

NATIONAL ANIMAL - TIGER 

The magnificent tiger is a combination of grace, strength, agility 

and enormous power has earned its pride of place as the national animal 

of India. 




ma 




Out of eight races of the species known, the 
| Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found 
throughout the country except in the north- 
-western region 



NATIONAL BIRD - PEACOCK 

The Indian peacock is the National Bird of 
India, The male of the species with a glistening 
blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze- 
green tail of around 200 elongated feathers is the 
National Bird. The elaborate courtship dance of 
the peacock, fanning out the tail and preening its 
feathers is a gorgeous sight. 

NATIONAL SONG 

Our National Song Vande Mataram was composed by 

»rji in Sanskrit. It was a song that 
served as a motivation to the Indians in the freedom 
struggle against the British. 






NATIONAL FLOWER - LOTUS 

Lotus is the National Flower of India. It is a 
sacred flower and occupies a unique position in | 
the art and mythology of ancient India. It has 
been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture 
since time immemorial. 

NATIONAL TREE - BANYAN 





The National Tree of India is the Banyan. It is a 
huge tree with deep roots .It symbolises the 
country's unity. This tree is considered immortal 
and is an integral part of the myths and legends of 
India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point 
of village life . 



NATIONAL FRUIT - MANGO 

Our National Fruit is Mango, The mango is called 
the Food of the Gods.The word mango was originated 
from the Tamil word "mangai" 

Our National Symbols depict our rich culture and tradition. We 
as Indians should know the values behind these symbols and respect 
them. 
Trace the emblem using a coin here 




v 







EXERCISES 



I.FILL IN THE BLANKS 
1The 




symbols represent the spirit, values and 




ideals of our nation. 

2.The design of the National Flag was adopted on 

3-Our National Anthem was written by 

4There are spokes in the wheel of our National Flag 

5- is our National Song. 

ILMATCH THE FOLLOWING 

1 . National Emblem - Peacock 

2. National Animal - Lotus 

3. National Flower - Tiger 

4. National Anthem - Samath 

5. National Bird - Jana - gana - mana 

III.ANSWERTHE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 
1 .What do the three colours of the National Flag stand for? 
2.What is written at the base of our National Emblem? 
3.When do we hoist the National Flag in our schools? 
4.What is the duration of time to sing the National Anthem? 

INACTIVITY 



1 . Draw the National Flag and colour it. 

2. Find out how the National Flag looked before our independence. 

3. How is it d rfferent from our present National Flag ? 

4. Collect the national flags of different countries, paste it in your 
scrap book. 

5. Design a symbol for your school! What would it mean? 





MOTTO 



SYMBOL 




8 



I l' : 




H» 



'■ 




*4 







: 



LIFE ST 



mm 

1 




The life style of people depends on the work they do, the way they 
spend their free time and money and the values on which they have 
based their lives. In other words, it is their needs and wants which are 
influenced by their family and cultural back ground. 

Every Indian city has people 
of different cultures and customs 
adapting to the new situation and living together 
with the locals peacefully. These people are the 
image of our nation and the example of unity in 
diversity. This lesson is a narration of people 
who have adapted themselves to a new way of 
life out of necessity. 
Through them we can understand the changes and the ability of 
man to adapt to new life styles. 

VASAMMALI-TODA GIRL 
My name is Vasamalli. I am 9 years old. I live in Kodap mund 
Udagamandalam or Ooty as it is popularly known. I belong to a hill tribe 
called Toda.Our Toda settlements are called Mund My father's name is 
Korattas and he works in a tea estate . 

My mother's name is Pudumalli sin.She is 
a teacher in a local school. I study in class IV in 
the same school. We walk quite a distance to 
reach school. I get up early in the morning and 
help my mother. After school in the evening I 
hardly get an hour to play, as it gets cold very 
early in the evening. Whenever my mother gets 
time she tells me about herchildhood. 





She said that she had to struggle hard to escape child marriage 
and get educated, as education was not common especially for girls. 
I was surprised when she said that my grand father was keen on 
increasing the number of buffaloes he had because the person with 
large number of buffaloes was considered the wealthiest in the Mund. 

The old ideas are changing slowly because of our contact with 
people in the town. We do not live in the Toda hut which is built with 
bamboo, dried grass and loose stones piled one on top of the other, 
with a low entrance. Earlier this protected them from the cold and wild 
animals. 




Now we live in properly built houses. We wear the traditional two 
piece white cloth (one around the hip and the other over the shoulder) 
during the only religious ceremony Kona Shastra and on special 
occasions like marriage. 

The piece worn over the shoulder is embroidered with black and 
red threads. We comb and plait our hair and do not curl it using butter like 
my grand mother. Our elders were pure vegetarians, eating only the 
dairy products and vegetables. But now, we have learnt many things 
from others. So, our food habits have also changed. Though our life style 
has changed to a great extent; we left certain traditions. We 
still go to our traditional temple to worship Goddess Teikirshy and follow 
the customs during birth and death. 

How does your dress differ from todas? 




MANI-A FARMER FROM TANJORE 

My name is Mani. I live in Alathur, Thanjavur district. I was born 
and brought up here. I am a farmer and I own a small piece of land. 

The alluvial soil, bright sun and the river 
Cauvery have made this district suitable for 
agriculture. Rice is the chief crop. Our district is 

Jp^&w called as the Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. The north 
east monsoon generally gives plenty of water. So, I 
cultivate rice and banana. I learnt about cultivation 
from my grand lather and father. Years back when I 
was young, things were different. 
I could not continue my studies after school as there were no 
proper bus facilities to go to the college in the town. So r I started 
helping my father. Life was very tough then, as our land was dependent 
on the north east monsoon. When it failed we had to go through a lot 
of hardship. Those days we were working day and night in the land. 





I 




There was no proper road and transportation to move our produce 
to the market. Now things have changed. We have schools and 
colleges for our children, well laid roads, supply of electricity and 
water to our lands and homes. Many new centres of entertainments 
have come. When we have a good harvest, we enjoy life like any body 
else in the big cities. But at times the untimely rains and cyclones 
shatter our life. At that time the loss is so heavy that some farmers are 
not able to handle the situation. 




The government helps the farmers in many ways. It has brought 
water even to the interior parts through irrigation projects and canals. 
We have community halls where television sets and radio are kept for 
public use. All new technological developments in farming are made 
known to us either through mass media or through special officers. 
Now small farmers can come together and form co-operative farms. 

They have co-operative stores and banks which provide assistance 
in all matters of farming. I utilize my free time to find some new 
way to improve my yield. At present I am experimenting on vermiculture 
and organic manure. I enjoy being a farmer. 

RANBIR-A COOLIE 

My name is Ranbir. I am 30 years old. I belong to Kandivli (Kandivali) 
a suburb near Mumbai. My parents work in a stone quarry there. They 
wanted me to take up a job in one of the stone quarries, but I did not like 
the idea. I studied only up to 8 th Class. I took a train and came to 
Tamil Nadu, hoping to get some job. It was only by accident that I 
became a coolie. The life of a coolie may look easy but 

actually it is one of struggle. From the time I get up 
in the morning my worries start. You will 
understand only if I tell about my work conditions. I 
am a licensed coolie. All the licensed coolies are 
given a serial number. We should take turns to 
carry luggage. According to the system, every 
coolie gets a turn once in 2 or 3 hours. In spite of 
the system, misunderstandings and quarrels are 
common. I should survive those moments. 

I work tor 10 to 12 hours a day. I charge travellers 
from Rs.50 to Rs. 300 depending on the luggage that I have 
to carry. I earn around Rs.200 a day. We are four in the 
family. With the rising prices I find it difficult to make both the 
ends meet. 









When my children ask me to buy something, I 
borrow money from my friends; but it becomes a 
struggle while returning it. 

Nowadays most of the passengers are not hiring 
coolies. They travel with fewer luggage and use trolleys, and 
wheeled bags. So my earning has come down. In all these 
years as a coolie, the only thing that makes me happy is that these 
languages that I can speak a little bit of English, Telugu, Malayalam 
and Tamil. My latest delight is learning to drive car. 

SANTHOSH-OWNER OF A FAST FOOD SHOP 

My name is Santhosh. I am 25 years old. I was born and 
brought up in Thirunelveli. My father works in one of the textiles shops 
there. I studied up to 8 th . Class. I was not very much interested in 
studies. I came to Chennai in search of a job. 
I was struck with wonder to see the buzzing 
traffic, the crowd and the high buildings. One 
day, after eating in a road side shop I was 
sitting on a stone near by. The shop owner 
saw me and enquired about me. I told him my 
story. After thinking for a while; he asked me 

if I would work in his shop. I agreed. He gave me food, a place to stay 
and paid a small amount as monthly salary. 

In the beginning I was helping him to clean plates and utensils, 
clean the shop and sometimes even in cooking. I learnt a lot from him. 
I worked with him for three years. One day I told him that I want to start 
a fast food shop of my own. He helped me to set up this road side shop. 

In the beginning by 5*0 clock in the evening I was there in the beach 
with my food items. With in a short period my business picked up. 

How do you spend your free time ? 






Things have changed a lot in the last 
few years! Earlier very few people bought from the 
road side shops. But now I prepare chaat items, 
vada pav and some typical Thirunelveli sweets and 
dishes. Whatever I prepare gets sold. The demand 
from the people has made me creative. I try out 
some innovative dishes also. 
Now people earn a lot and do not mind spending. They have 
become health conscious and very particular about cleanliness. People 
from all walks of life come with their family enjoy the evening, eat from my 
shop and go home relaxed. I am earning enough. But the growing 
number of fast food shops worries me a lot these days. 

When I am free and alone I do miss the 
lush green paddy fields, the early morning fresh 
air, a walk along the bank of Thamirabarani River 
and my mother's affectionate calls. 

Put The following in the correct column. 

Chips.Ragi malt,Sprout grains,Samosa,Vegetable Salad, Baked 
bean, Fresh juices,Packed Juices 




HEALTHY FOOD 


JUNK FOOD 







FACTS 

1 . The Todas are a small pastoral community. 

2. Worship of God is an important part of the daily life of Indian people. 

3. Respecting elders is a common trait among Indians. 

4. Namasthae is the traditional Indian style of greeting. 

5. 'Athithi Devo Bhava' A guest is always treated as a God. 




I.ACTIVITIES 



1. Di 



iscuss with your teacher how the lifestyl 
differ from others. 
2. List the professions in your locality. 



3.GROUP DISCUSSION 

a. A farmer in the Nilgiris 

b. Latest developments in the field of agriculture. 

c. The fastfood culture 

d. The tribes of India 
Divide the whole class into four groups and ask them to prepare a 
writing on the given headings and have a debate. 

4, GROUP THE FOLLOWING IN THE GIVEN COLUMNS. 
■Mund, Noodles, luggage.farming^uffalo.fastfood.kona shastra, 
rice bowls,organic manure,railway station 




THODAS 


FARMERS 


COOLIE 


FAST FOOD 
SHOP 




























EXERCISES 
I. FILL IN THE BLANKS 
1 .Earlier the huts of Todas wear built with 
2.Todas wear the traditional dress during 
3.Mani is experimenting on 






^ iir 



4.Ranbir borrows money from his friends 
S.Santhosh was wonder stuck when he saw 

II. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 
1 .Who are the best examples of unity in diversity? 
2.What surprised Vasamalli? 
3.Which monsoon gives plenty of rain to Thanjavur? 
4. How long does Ranbir work in a day? 
S.What makes Santhosh more creative? 

III. GIVE REASONS. 
1 .Vasamallii's grand father was keen on increasing the number of 

buffaloes he had. 

2. Mani cultivates rice and banana. 

3.Ranbir"s earning has dropped down. 

IV. COLLECT THE DETAILS OF TANJORE AND FILL IN. 





Location- 

Climate- 
River- 
Monsoon- 
Crops Grown- 

Important Monument 



V. BRING OUT THE PLACES WHERE GEOGRAPHY IS LINKED 
WITH HISTORY IN THIS LESSON. 








INVENTIONS * 

People say, 'Necessity is the mother of invention 1 , said the teacher. 
'Do you agree? 1 

'No, I don't' , said Malli. 'We can invent things for fun. I have built a special 
house with just cardboard and cloth. I can take it with me wherever I go.' 
'Wow!' said Mani. 'Where did you get the idea?' 
'From a snail', said Malli. 





Have you invented anything just for fun? Name one! 




We can also invent games', said Kadhir. Have you? 

'Where did human invention come from?' asked the teacher. 

'I am sure it is from nature', said Lithisha. We can invent something if we 

are curious', said Ameen. 

Now we have reached a stage where we cannot imagine a life 

without the electronic gadgets. Human life on earth has been a journey 

of inventions. Let us think about inventions of early human beings. Can 

you name one important invention?' asked the teacher. 

"Fire", said Martin. He loved to invent new items to eat, in the kitchen. 

'Right, let's talk about fire', said the teacher. 



INVENTION OF FIRE 

In the beginning man was scared of the forest fire and the 
lightning as he did not and could not understand them. In course of time 
probably he saw bamboos producing fire while rubbing against each 
other and roots and meat tasting better when softened by fire. He also 
would have realised that bamboos could be bent to make various 
things. 





'Could it be a girl or a woman who discovered these?' asked 

Menaka. 

'Could be', smiled the teacher. 'It could certainly have been a 

a woman who discovered fire or it could even have been children who 

noticed and told their parents. 

Man understood that fire not only provided light and heat at night but 

kept the wild animals also away. 

As time passed by, man learnt to make fire by 

rubbing hard stones called flint. They also used stones 

as weapons to defend themselves from enemies. With 

the discovery of fire the life of human race changed to a 

great extent. "Fire has always been sacred to man', said 

the teacher. 

In the modern times, with the advancement in science 

and technology fire is used in thermal and nuclear 

plants, research centers and in industries. 

'Can you think of another important invention?' asked the teacher. 
'Plough' said shankar. 

THE STORY OF THE PLOUGH 

Agriculture is the back bone of any civilization. Early man noticed 

that seeds produced plants. They obtained fruits, vegetables, grain and 

roots from plants and trees. Man soon learnt that plants grew better in 

soil that had been loosened. 

So he used sharp stones and bones to loosen the soil and learnt to 

produce his food. 

People made the first plough about 
8000 years ago. They used oxen to pull the 
plough. Thus plough became a tool to 
prepare the soil for growing plants. 
The first ploughs might have been used in 
the region which we call now as Tamilnadu. 










Researchers say that the old word, 'nan gol 1 
for plough can be divided into nam: oxen and kol: 
staff - The region which used it first is called as 
Nanchilnadu. Another Tamil word for plough is 
'nanchil'! Nanchilnadu was famous for a variety of 
seeds. The original name of Kanniyakumari was 
kazhi kudi orthe place of the plough. 

With the coming of plough people settled in one place and build a 
consistent history. Tamilnadu has an ancient history of agriculture, and a 
variety of seeds. 

The other important invention of the early man was wheel', 
said the teacher. 

'We learnt a little about it through Sembian's story in Class III, 
said Natasha. 

'I am glad you remember what you learnt in the previous class', 
said the teacher. 

THE INVENTION OF WHEEL 

It is not very clear as to when exactly the wheel was invented. But 
researchers say that it was probably 8000 years ago that man began 
using wheel in Asia. The oldest wheel that exists today is from 
Mesopotamia [ancient civilization near Egypt], around 5000 years ago. It 
is believed that it was used in chariots drawn by horses. This is marked as 
one of the most important steps in the development of human civilization. 
The most primitive vehicle must have been a hollowed out tree trunk in 
which early man dragged home things he collected in the forests. 
By 5000 B.C. sledges were used to move stone blocks. 





Interesting facts on sledges Egyptians used it 
when the pyramids were built. Eskimos used 
them pulled by dogs to carry cargo 





■ 

IMPORTANCE OF THE INVENTION OF WHEEL 

1 . People could travel long distances. 

2. They were able to move goods faster 

3. After the Industrial Revolution the wheel became the 

central element of technology - wheel is used to facilitate 

the motion of a vehicle or a machine. 

Most of the great inventions have 

been anonymous though the humanity 

as a whole is benefited by them. 

Tell us about the Indian scientists and inventors', asked Mary. There 

have been many 1 , said the teacher. 'India has some very great women 

scientists as well. DrAsima Chatterjee evolved an Indian medicine for 

epilepsy! Some of the Indian scientists who made significant 

contribution in Science are: 





Evolution of stars 



Atomic Energy 



Missile technology 



Structure & Function 
of the ribosome [cell] 



S. Chandrasekharan 



Dr, J. Bhabha 



A.P.J.Abdul kalam 



V. Ramakrishnan 



Teacher, why are all inventions associated with men?' Purvi asked. 
The teacher smiled and answered, 'But women have contributed in their 
own way to the society. Charles Babbage was the designer of the 
modern computer.The first computer program was written by a lady, 
Ada Lovelace for Babbage's machine even before it was built. 



Bessie Nesmith 
Mary Anderson 


white correction fluid 
windshield wiper 



Janaki Ammal 




Ethnic botany 



The teacher now talked to ttiem about Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose. 





One of the greatest scientists that 
modem India has produced is Sir. Jagadish 
Chandra Bose. He was a famous Physicist 
and botanist He was bom on 30th of 
November 1658 In East Pakistan now 
Bang la Dash. His father's name was 
Bhagwan Chandra Boss, his mother's 
name was Abala Bose. 



He graduated in Natural Science in 1884 and became a 
Professor In Physics at the Presidency College, Calcutta. He studied 
plant physiology and proved that plants have life by observing the 
pulse of the plant through experiments. He also designed an 
extremely sensitive automatic recorder to measure the growth of 
plants. He believed that all knowledge belonged to the world. 
He said, The true student will not go after money or status - he will be 
committed to obtaining knowledge so that he can help humanity'. 

He founded the famous Bose Research Initiative In Calcutta for 
Physical, Biological sciences in 1917. 

He was the first Indian to be honoured as a "Fellow of the Royal 
Society". He died on November 23, 1 937 In Bihar. 



To conclude the class the teacher said, This planet of ours has 
undergone many changes In all respects whenever there was 
an invention. 
Now It Is for us to take care of this earth In whatever way possible 

for us. 1 



Write your favourite scientists names here: 





KNOWLEDGE UPDATE 








INVENTIONS 


INVENTORS 




Electricity, Bulb,cinema etc 


Thomas Alva Edison 


Steam Engine 


James Watt 


Telephone 


Alexander Graham Bell 


Radio 


Marconi 


Television 


J.LBaird 


Aeroplane 


Right Brothers 


Pencil 


N.J.Kando 


Zip 


J.Jatson 


Tooth Brush 


William Attis 


Parachute 


A.J.Camanin 






ACTIVITIES 
1 The names of the inventors are hidden in their own inventions 
along with an unwanted alphabet. If you remove it you will get the 
names of the inventors. 

a) HALEHXAHNHDEHR GRAHAMBHEHL -Telephone 

b) AWRAIGAHT ABROATHAER - Aeroplane 

c) BEDIBSOBN- Bulb 
2. Compare the lifestyle. 





Food 


Dress 


Dwelling place 


Ancient Man 








Modern man 









3. Predict how the lifestyle will change in another 20 years? 




EXERCISES 



. FILL IN THE BLANKS 




invented the modern pencil 



discovered that plants had life, 
discovered an Indian medicine for epilepsy. 



II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING 




1 . Edison 

2. Graham Bell 

3. Marconi 

4. Wright Brothers 

5. James Watt 

6. J.L. Baird 



Aeroplane 

Steam engine 

Telephone 

Electricity 

Television 

Radio 



j ^: 




£-—- 



**■,. 




III. IF YOU ARE GIVEN A CHANCE TO REDESIGN YOUR 
FAVOURITE THING, 
(eg. car, camera, phone, pen, Television, dress etc.) 
How would you do it? 
Draw and show or make a model and explain. 

IV WHICH OF THE INVENTIONS IS THE MOST HELPFUL FOR 
MANKIND ACCORDING TO YOU? GIVE REASONS FOR YOUR 
ANSWER 

V TRY OUT RAINBOW IN YOUR CLASSROOM 

MATERIALS NEEDED: 
CD/DVD,Torch Light, White Sheet 

PROCEDURE: 

Paste a sheet on the wall. Make the Classroom dark, Now 
Pass the light Into the blank side of the CD/DVD and allow the light 
Rays to fall on the White paper.Now What do you see? 
have you ever seen something like that during a rainy day? 








RIGHTS AND DUTIES 



Mrs. Kamala enters the class to find some of her students having 
a serious discussion. The moment they saw their teacher they stopped 
and stood up. 
The teacher became curious and asked 

"What the argument was about?". 
Sita started slowly, 'We were discussing about the 
government. Please tell us about our government.' 
'India is an independent democratic country. It has a 
written constitution,' began the teacher. 
What is a Constitution?' asked Ramesh. 

A Constitution is a legal document. It clearly states the powers and 
functions of the government and the rights of the people.These rights are 
called the basic or fundamental rights. 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 

They are called "basic or fundamental rights" because they are 
important for an individual to develop his or her personality. 
The six fundamental rights are 




•* Right to Equality 


•* Right to Freedom 


% Right against Exploitation 


•< Right to freedom of Religion 


•* Right to Constitutional Remedies 


•^Right to Culture and Education 





I What do you mean by Right to Equality? 



Saritha sitting at the back asked hurriedly. 
It means that all are equal before the eyes of law. 





No one can be 
discriminated on the 
basis of caste, colour, 
religion, creed or sex. 
This right is applied in the 
matters of education and 
employment. 



But can we enjoy all these rights? asked Vijay. 




'Oh, yes!' the teacher explained, 'In India we enjoy 
several freedoms. All citizens have the right to express 
themselves freely, to practise any religion, to move freely with 
in the country, to live any where in India, to take up any job or 
practise any profession. 

But what is important here is we should remember to respect 
the freedom of others while enjoying ours. 
'Are these rights and freedoms meant for children also?' Rani 
asked. Yes, of course. These are meant for all the citizens of India', 
the teacher answered. 




Then why do we see children selling things on the roadside? 



'It is really sad that such things happen now. They should be 

given opportunities to get educated; Poverty should not stop their 

development. That is why The Right against Exploitation is included 

in our constitution. This protects children, women and the poor. 

Our constitution says that children below the age of 14 years should 

not be made to work. 

Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. This Act makes 
education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 to 14.' 





What do you mean by the right to constitutional remedies? 




'It means, the citizens of India have the right to go to the court 

if any of their fundamental rights is violated 1 . 

'Our country is doing such a lot for us what should we do in return?' 
asked Stephen. 

'Just as the fundamental rights, we are also given 
fundamental duties. We should observe all those duties. Rights and 
duties are like two sides of the same coin. While exercising our rights 
we should also remember that we have certain duties to perform. 




^ 



What are they? asked Lithisha from the last row. 



The teacher listed the duties, 



^Every citizen should respect the constitution of India, National flag and 

National Anthem. 
O We should follow the principles for which our leaders fought. 

# We should be willing to help our country when needed. 

# We should remain united. 

# We should take care of public property. 
O We should take care of forests, rivers, lakes and wild life which form 

our natural environment. 
&We must get rid of all superstitions and learn constantly to reach 
excellence. 

But these rights and duties are meant for elders 
How about children like us? Asked Faizee. I 
Anand got up and added, 'Is there any law that / J|[m I 
protects the interest of children?' 

That is why it is said that all children have a right: 
to live,to have a name and nationality.to be with their families as 
far as possible to good quality health care and should be protected from 
violence and neglect andto say what they think. 
Any more questions? The teacher asked before winding up the class. 






* • 



ACTIVITIES 

1. LISTTHERIGHTTHINGSTODOINTHECLASS. 

Subheads can read: Working Quietly, Cleaning Up, Waiting to Speak, 
Playing Fairly, Asking Permission, Raising Your Hand, Sharing, Using 
Equipment, Taking Turns) 
2.WRITEA"CLASSROOM CONSTITUTION" 

Ask Students to suggest rules to run classroom smoothly . 
As each rule is proposed, have the class vote on whether or 
not it should be included in the document. rP 

If majority in the class vote for it, the rule becomes part of the constitution . 

EXERCISES I 

I. WHICH OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES CAN BE 
APPLIED UNDER THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS? I 

1 . Ramu's father is a gardener. They are poor and so he doesn't go to 
school. 

2. My neighbour Sankar is leaving for Delhi as his father has got a job 
there. 

3.0ur class is going to clean the near by temple this week end 
4.Poonam is 8years old. She works in a factory for long hours^ 

II. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. 
1 . are essential for an individual to develop his or 

her personality to lead a decent life. 

2. All are equal before the eyes of . 

3. Right is included in the constitution specially to 

protect children, women and the poor. 

4. We should follow the 




<^ 



for which our leaders fought. 



5. Rights and duties are like two sides of the same 

II. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . Why are the rights called Fundamental or basic? 

2. What should we remember while enjoying our freedom? 

3. What does the right against exploitation say? 

4. What is meant by right to constitutional remedies? 

78 





FESTIVALS 










When you hear the word festival, we think of Good food, new 

clothes, visiting places and meeting relatives. We celebrate national, 

religious and seasonal festivals in our country. All these festivals bring joy 

I and happiness to our lives. We share happy wishes , good food and greet 

every one with enthusiasm. ^g^ \ 

NATIONAL FESTIVALS ^^ A 

If 

L 

Festivals of national importance are called National Festivals. These 

festivals are celebrated in memory of great leaders and historical events. 

j They spread the message of love, peace, brotherhood and humanity. It is 

86 celebrated with great patriotism in all parts of our country. On such 

occasions the capital, New Delhi, is the centre of national celebrations. 

INDEPENDENCE DAY 

On 15 th of August 1947, India won her independence from the British. 
We celebrate the day every year as Independence Day. 

On this day our Prime Minister 
hoists the National Flag at the Red Fort 
and the Chief Minister hoists the flag in 
every state capitals. Every one wears a 
small Indian flag in the states on this 
day. All institutions across the country, 
including your school, hoist the national 
flag and salute it with pride. 





On that day we remember all the Indians who fought against the British, 

79 



O' 






'S 



REPUBLIC DAY 

We celebrate the Republic Day on the 
26 th of January. On this day our President 
hoists our National flag. The most majestic 
parade is conducted on this day. 



sT< 



Apart from the Armed Forces, school children also participate in 
this parade. The states exhibit their resources and recent achievements 
through tableaus. 

GANDHI JAYANTHI 

We celebrate Gandhi Jayanti on 2 nd of October, our leaders pay 
homage to the Father of our Nation . 





On this day the nation as a whole, rededicates itself to the ideals 
1 and principles for which Gandhiji worked. 

RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS 
Since India has many religions and faiths, we celebrate a number 
of festivals. **^JU^. 

DIWALI mZy ^0^ 

Diwali the Festival of Lights is the most popular Hindu festival. This 

festival is filled with a lot of fun and is celebrated in most parts of the 

country with great enthusiasm. People in the Northern part of India 

i celebrate Diwali to signify the home coming of Rama and Sita after 14 

vaars of exile. 




years of exile. 






\ 



\ 







'*£ # 




Huge effigies of Ravana are burnt to 

symbolise the killing of evil. They worship Lakshmi, 

the Goddess of wealth and then light lamps to 

welcome prosperity and well-being. This day is 

celebrated with lights, crackers, and merriment. 
Diwali is known as Deepavali, in tha 

Southern part of India. It is believed that the evil *^ 

demon Narakasura was killed on this day. 

To celebrate the triumph of good over evil, people wake up before 
dawn, have oil bath and wear new clothes. It is believed that taking a 
bath before sunrise is equal to taking a holy bath in Ganges. After the 
puja, children burst firecrackers to celebrate the defeat of the demon. It 
is a day of rejoicing. So, people meet family ,relatives and friendsand 
exchange sweets. *^J) 

RAMZAN ^^ 

There are a number of Muslim festivals like Muharram, Bakrid Id, 
Ramzan, Id-I-Milad and others. Ramzan is the most enjoyable festival 
among them. During the Ramzan month they fast by day and eat after 
the sun set. 

It is celebrated at the first day of Arab! Shawal month when the 
crescent moon appears. 

The most important part of Ramzan Id is the 
Community prayer. It is generally held in an 
open space. They give alms to the poor before 
attending the public prayer. Some give food and 
new clothes to the poor. When friends and 
relatives meet they greet each other "Id 
Mubarak". Thus Ramzan Id is a general 
expression of goodwill and friendship. 








/' 



81 



'/ 



f my ■ 



CHRISTMAS 






Christians celebrate the birthday of Jesus Christ |N§ 
on the 25 th of December every year as Christmas. It is mm^ 
a celebration of humanity and mankind and conveys Wm 
the message of love, tolerance and brotherhood . / \ 

Children wait eagerly for Santa Claus to bring them gifts. Another 
most common feature of Christmas is the decoration of crib (manger) 
the stable where Jesus Christ was born. People participate in special 
masses organized in churches. Celebrations of Christmas are marked 
by carols, cakes, candles and decoration of Christmas tree. Christmas 
gifts are given to family members and friends. They help the poor 
especially during this season and spread the message of love and 
brotherhood. 
BUDDHA POORNIMA WPWWP ■ 

Buddha's birthday is celebrated on the full moon 
day of Tamil month Vaigasi (May-June) as Buddha 
Poornima by Buddhists. 

Vardamana Mahaveera's birthday is celebrated as 
Mahaveer Jayanthi byJains and Gurunanak's birthday is 
celebrated as Gurunanak Jayanthi by Sikhs 

SEASONAL FESTIVALS 
We do have festivals connected to seasons like spring or winter. 
Some of the seasonal festivals are thanks-giving to natural forces like 
the sun or the rain, as India's backbone is agriculture. 

PONGAL OR UZHAVAR THIRUNAAL 

Pongal is celebrated to thank the Sun God, Earth and cattle 

which helps the farmers. Usually this festival is celebrated in the middle 
of January forfour days. 

This festival marks the end of winter. It is the time 
when people get ready to thank the Sun God, Earth and 
their Cattle for the wonderful harvest. Well ahead of the 
festival, people clean their houses and throughout Pongal 
days, women decorate their houses with colourful RangolL 
§ ^\^ i * X ^ |82 





THE FIRST DAY - BHOGI PONGAL 





Bhogi Pongal is celebrated to thank the 
God of rains. On this day people wake up 
before sunrise and burn the unwanted 
things. Children enjoy singing and dancing 
around the bonfire. 



THE SECOND DAY - PERUM PONGAL 

The second day is the most important day of 
the entire festival. On this day, the Sun God is 
worshipped with great devotion. Members of the 
family gather outside their house and cook 'Pongal' 
in new clay pots with newly harvested rice and fresh 
milk. When the rice boils and overflows, everybody 
shout 'Pongal O Pongal 1 and pray to the Sun. 

It is believed that the overflow of rice symbolizes a prosperous 
farming season. 

THE THIRD DAY - MATTUPONGAL 

The third day is celebrated as Mattu Pongal. 
Cow, which gives milk and bull which draws the 
plough in the fields are considered very sacred. So, 
the farmers honour them by celebrating the day as 
a day of thanks-giving to them. They clean their 
cattle; paint their horns and decorate them 
according to their taste. 

Alanganallur Jallikattu is conducted with enthusiasm on this 
day. Jallikattu or Taming of the bull is a traditional sport of Tamilnadu. 
The most famous village for this sport is Alanganallur near Madurai. 

This day is also celebrated as Thiruvalluvar Day', to honour the 
great Tamil author who composed Thirukkural' which explains on all 








aspects of life. 





/'-/ ','7 



'/ 



THE FOURTH DAY - KAANUM PONGAL 

Kaanum Pongal is celebrated by sisters for the welfare of their 
brothers. On this day people meet their friends and relatives and greet 
each other. They go out on sight seeing and enjoy the day together. 
ONAM 

People of Kerala celebrate Onam with great geity and 
enthusiasm.lt falls in the Tamil month of Aavani(August- 
September). Drawing flower carpet is the main attraction of this 
festival. This is also celebrated as the harvest festival in 
Kerala.Stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata are told 
through Kadakali dance. 

Snake boat races are held during Onam. Scores of long snake 
boats and other smaller crafts participate in these events. Colourful 
water parades is conducted before, the snake boat races. It is the largest 
team sport in the world. 

The people of Kerala look forward to The 

Nehru Trophy Boat Race with excitement. 

Thousands of men, women and children come to 

the watersides of Alappuzha to witness the race. 

There are separate races for women too 

~S3 







The colourful festival of Holi is celebrated in March, to welcome 
spring [flowering season]. There are many folk tales about the 
celebration of Holi, The festival is seen as the victory of 'good' over 'evil 1 . 
People walk down their neighbourhoods to spray coloured water on one 
another. Earlier these colours were natural dyes. Plant and mineral 
colours were used to create pink, green, yellow and blue water. 
Today, people use many chemicals to create these colours, but the spirit 
of fun and joy have remained the same for thousands of years! Holi 
gnifies a feeling of friendship, brotherhood and reunion. 






tw 



^ 



\\ 



. . 







<)M 






Holi is also celebrated as harvest festival besides being a spring 
festival. It marks the harvesting of the winter crop (Rabi) when wheat 
corns get ripened and turn golden brown. Farmers celebrate Holi by 
offering a small portion of their first crop to the Fire God Agni. If you had 
a chance to celebrate the spring, what would you do? 

RAKHI OR RAKSHABANDHAN 

Rakhi is celebrated on the full-moon day known as the Shravan 

Poornima in the month of July-August. It is celebrated to strengthen the 

emotional bond of affection between brother and sister. On this day 

sisters tie a holy thread around their brothers 1 wrist. The brothers in 

return promise to protect their sisters from harm. Both feed each other 

sweets. One does not have to be a blood brother, to build this bond. 

Anyone whom a woman accepts as her brother or well-wisher can 

receive a rakhi. 

In history, the Rani Karnavati of Chittor sent a rakhi to the 

Mughal Emperor Humayun, and he accepted it! This 

thread is tied with sisterly love and is called 'Rakhi' which 

means "a bond of protection". 

AADI PERUKKU 

Aadi perukku or Padinettam Perukku is a unique celebration in all 
the perennial [where water flows all through the year] river basins in 
Tamil Nadu. It is celebrated on the 18 th day of the Tamil lunar month 
Aadi, to welcome the onset of the much-awaited monsoon. 



People living along the river 
banks (especially on the banks of 
Cauvery) in Tamil Nadu celebrate 
this day with great enthusiasm to 
pay their tribute to water, which is 
essential for all life. 













CAR FESTIVAL 
This is an important part of temple festivals in India. During this 

festival the idols of God are kept in the temple car which is elaborately 

decorated with flowers, lights etc. People pull the car with great 

devotion. Various forms of dance and music are an essential part of 

this procession. The most interesting feature of this festival is the make 

shift shops set on either side of the street preceding the 

temple. The largest temple car festivals are hosted by the 

temples in Thiruvarur (Thanjavur district), Puri (Orissa), 

Srivilliputhur (Virudunagar District) and Tirunelveli. 

OTHER IMPORTANT DAYS 
CHILDREN'S DAY 

14 th November, the birth day of Pandit Jawaharlal 
Nehru is celebrated as the Children's Day. He was the first 
Prime Minister of India. This day reflects his love for 
children. 

TEACHER'S DAY 

We celebrate Teacher's day the on 5 th of 

September every year. This Day is dedicated to 

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. He was the first 

Vice President and the second President of India. 

He was a great scholar and teacher. As a mark of 

respect, we celebrate his birthday as Teacher's Day. 

Teacher's Day is a tribute to the hard work and 

devotion of the teachers to educate children. 
EARTH DAY 

Gaylord Nelson of the United States first celebrated Earth 

: Day on the 22 nd April 1970 in the USA. On this day we 

celebrate the unique place of earth in the universe. People all 

over the world celebrate to protect plants and animals and to 

g clean up the world we live in. We celebrate Earth Day on April 

f 22nd each year. 







• ^\V" t" *\* •* 







ACTIVITIES 

. Choose the correct ingredients given below and 
write them in the pot to make sweet Pongal . 





/Wheat, 



Rice, 



sugar cane, Jaggery, 



fruits, 



dai, 



milk, 



ghee, 



cardamom, 



banana, cashew nuts, coriander, 
drygrapes, pepper, atta 

II. Decorate the cow and get it ready for Mattu Pongal . 





I. Unscramble and find out the answer 
1 .Regional name for bull fight 



(kattujalli) 









2The place which is famous for bull fight in Tamil Nadu 
(nallalanganur) 

est* 



y 



w 





IV. LOCAL FESTIVAL, FILL THE WORD WEB. 



Month/Period 




\ /No. of Days\ 



God Worshipped / 
Events Remembered 



Cultural Activities 





EXERCISES 
I. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 

1 . Festivals of national importance are called 

2. On Diwali day we welcome prosperity and well-being by 

3. Brothers promise to protect their sisters on 

4. Community prayer is the most important part of 

5. Christmas is celebrated to convey the message of love and 
WHAT ARE THE FOLLOWING? 

1. Crib 

2. carol 

3. Id Mubarak 

4. Onam 

5. Agni 
. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . Why is 26 th January important? 

2. Why is Holi important to the farmers? 

3. What is Alappuzha known for? 

4. When is Earth Day celebrated? 







5. How do we honour Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan the first 



Vice President of India? 











The word safety means free from danger. A danger that strikes a 
person unexpectedly is called an accident. They may or may not cause 
injury or damage. But such accidents can be avoided by following safety 
rules and procedures. 

Look at the picture. Now discuss with your friend 
and write what would have happened to ? 





SAFETY FIRST 




ABI 



KABIL 



ANWAR 



MEENA 



So what causes accidents? The only answer could be either 
ignorance or carelessness. It is very important to know about the various 
safety measures that we have to follow in our day to day life. 

FIRE SAFETY 

Fire is an important element in our day to day life. As fire can both 
create and destroy we should use it carefully, otherwise it can 
cause damage to our life and property. 

List the uses of fire. 





REASONS FOR FIRE ACCIDENTS 
+ Mishandling of highly inflammable items 
4- Leakage in cooking gas (LPG) cylinder 
+ Electrical short circuit 
4- Crackers falling on the huts 

PRECAUTIONARY METHODS TO AVOID FIRE ACCIDENT 

+ Do not play with match sticks as It may cause serious burns or 

even major fire accidents. 
+ After lighting a candle put off the match sticks 

before disposing it. 
+ We should be careful and cautious while bursting 

crackers. It is best to have elders around. V ■ v | 



+ Do not play in the kitchen 
WHAT ARE THE USES OF THE FOLLOWING? 



J 





i- : 





WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR CLOTHES CATCH FIRE? 

Stop - Stop running, that would increase the oxygen 

and the Are may Increase. 

Drop - drop down to the ground. 

Roll - close your eyes and face and roll on the ground. 

This puts off the fire and saves you from serious injuries 





90 



FIRST AID 




Remove the burnt clothing. 
Run cool water over burnt area. 
Genfly clean the Injured area dry . 
Use a sterile bandage to cover bums. 
Take the patient to a doctor if required 
for any further treatment. 







ELECTRICITY AND SAFETY 



Today electricity dominates our homes, work place, and 
modes of transportation, communication, medicine and 
science. So we should always remember to use the 
electrical appliances, machines, and other devices 
carefully. 

THINGS TO REMEMBER 



A Do not play with electrical cords, wires, switches or plugs. 

Stay away from the snapped live wires and inform the elders 
Immediately. 

A Do not use a hair dryer or play with an electrical radio or television near 
any source of water. 

A if a power line Is dose to or In contact with a tree, do not touch It or 
climb on it. 1 

A Nevertouch an electrical appliance with wet hand. 

Fly kites In an open field and never near electrical posts 
A Never dlmb electrical towers or utility poles. 

Stay away from transformers. 





FIRST AID 

4 It is extremely necessary to know how to administer first aid 
to electrical accident victims before taking them to a doctor. 

# First switch off the main supply and remove the 
victim from the electrical supply. 

# Never touch the victim before he is removed from 
the electrical contact. 

# Take the victim to the doctor for immediate treatment 



ROAD SAFETY 



>■ 






» 

n 

m 

H 

* 

V 

S 

9 




Always follow traffic rules. 

Never play on the road . 

Walk on the platform (sidewalk). 

If there is no platform (side walk) walk on 

the right side of the road facing the on coming traffic. 

Always cross the road at the zebra crossing. 

Look left, right, and left again before you cross and keep 

looking both ways until you reach the other side. 

Never try to get in or out of a moving bus. 

Do not put your hands or head out while travelling in a car or bus 

Do not stand on the footboard while travelling in a bus 

One Should not use a mobile phone while on the road 



List the electrical and electronic items used in your 
house? 





WATER SAFETY 

fo We should follow the safety rule when we are near a water body 
() While learning to swim you should not go beyond the safe zone 

specified. Children should swim in water that is less than chest deep. 
We should not get into the sea where it is prohibited. 
O While having bath under a waterfall we should hold the iron bar 

which is kept for safety. 
(J Do not peep into the well. Inform the elders at home if you have 

dropped something in the well. 




FIRST AID 

# First bring the drowned person out of the water. 

# Make him lie down on his stomach, with head turned to a side. 

# Then press the stomach to take the water out. 

# Mean while send for a doctor for further treatment. 



If we are careful and cautious we can avoid and prevent accidents. 





ACTIVITIES 

1 . Tell your personal experience of bursting crackers, any fire 
accident that you have witnessed and your reaction. 

2. Talk about the accident that you have witnessed - their 

reaction- how it has affected you. 

3. your experience of bursting crackers during Diwali 

4. Demonstrate the accidents and the first aid- in groups. 

5. Demonstrate the way the electrical appliances should be used. 
6.Write a skit on safety and enact in groups. 

7. Observe the way your mother works in the kitchen and prepare 

a list of safe and unsafe methods she follows while working in the 
kitchen. You can draw and show. 

8. Look at Ravi and write how Ravi's mother would have warned him 




9.Collect informations from the newspaper 



ACCIDENTS 


REASONS 












I. OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING PICTURE AND TELL WHY THEY ARE 
UNSAFE WAYOF HANDLING FIRE? 





LOOK AT THE PICTURES. ANALYSE AND REASON OUT. 

What is happening in the pictures given below? 
Which of these would you like to follow? Why? 





EXERCISES 



READ THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AND SAY TRUE OR FALSE 
IF FALSE GIVE THE CORRECT ANSWER. 
1 . Accidents occur only on the roads. 



2. Run and inform your mother when your clothes get fire. ^ 



3. Never touch an electrical appliance with wet hand. 



4. While learning swimming you should not go beyond the safe zone 



5. Look right and left before you cross and reach the other side 



I. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. 

1 . After lighting a candle or stove, put off the 

before disposing it. 

2. We should run water over burnt area. 



3. If a power line is near or touching a tree do not 

4. Always cross the road at the . 

5. First bring the drowned person out of the 




I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1 . What is the main reason for accidents? 

2. What is the best way to practice fire safety? 

3. Why shouldn't we run when our clothes get fire? 

4. Which side should we walk if there is no plat form ? 

5. Where should the children swim in a pool? 






A$^% 




; :r 



MY STATE v )lk 




Locate our state in the given India map and write the neighbouring 
states of Tamilnadu 




Andaman and Nioobar 



Arabian Sea 



La^shadweep 



Indian Ocean 




HISTORY OF TAMILNADU 



The history of Tamil Nadu dates back to thousands of years. The 
early history of Tamil Nadu was dominated by the 

dyas (the 'moondru venthar' -Three Kings) and the Pallavas. 
However, evidences show that there were many tribal kingdoms which 
were ruled by chieftains called Vel, and later by the Nayakas. 

These ambitious rulers of this region were fighting constantly with one 
another over supremacy until the coming of the Europeans. 

Among the Europeans the British established a trading post in a 
small fishing village called Madras Pattinam on the eastern coast of India. 
In 1640 The East India Company established its factory in madras now 
Chennai, which emerged as the most important trading post for the 
company. Under the British rule, most part of south India was integrated 
into a region called Madras Presidency. 

In 1947 when India became independent, Madras Presidency 
became Madras State. In 1956 states were reorganized on the basis of 
the language spoken by majority of the people in the region. In 19 9, the 
name of the state was changed from Madras to Tamil Nadu. 

Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of 
India. Chennai (earlier known as Madras) 
is its capital. Tamil Nadu lies in the 
southern most part of the Indian 
peninsular. The southern most tip is 
Kanniyakumari. It is the meeting point of m 
the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and 
the Indian Ocean. 

Tamil Nadu is surrounded by the Eastern Ghats in the North, Indian 
Ocean in the south, Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait in the south east and 
Nilgiris and Anamalai in the west. It is the eleventh largest state in India by 
area. 





is the language spoken by the people of Tamil Nadu. Tamil is also 
the official language of the state. It is the first Indian language to be 
declared as a classical language by the Government of India in 2004 . 

NEIGHBOURING STATES 

The neighbouring states are Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

TAMILNADU - PHYSICAL FEATURES 

We can divide the physical features of Tamilnadu into three major 

divisions 

1. The hilly regions 

2.The plateaus and 

3The plains 

1. THE HILLY REGIONS 

This region can be divided into the 
Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. The 
Western ghats is a continuous range of 
mountains to the west of Tamilnadu. 



Tamilnadu physical 




Eastern Ghats to the east are broken ranges of mountains. These two 
ranges meet at Doddabetta (the highest point) in the Nilgiris. 



The Nilgiris and the Anaimalai are the important peaks in the Western 

Ghats. Anamudi in An ali is the highest peak in the Western Ghats. 

The famous wild life sanctury of this region is in Mudumalai . 

The famous hill stations of the Western Ghats are and 

i (Ooty) in the Nilgiris and Kodaika al in the Palani hills. 

The famous hill station of the Eastern ghats are Elagiri, Javadi Hills and 

Yercaud. 




2.THE PLATEAU REGION 

Tamilnadu is located to the south of the Deccan Plateau. The high lands 
found in Coimbatore and the Nilgiris are a part of the plateau region. 

3.THE PLAINS 

The stretch of plains between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal is 
called as the Eastern Coastal Plain. This stretch is called the 
st in Tamilnadu. Chennai which has an artificial harbour 
is an important port on the Coromandel Coast. 

Thirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Ramanathapuram,Thiruvarur, 
Thanjavur, Nagappattinam, Pudukkottai, Cuddalore, Villupuram, 
Kanchipuram, Chennai and Thiruvallur disricts are a part of this plain. 
The alluvial soil of this plain is a boon to the farmers of this region. 



RIVERS 

The land slopes eastwards. As a result 
all the rivers of Tamil Nadu, mainly the Palar, 
the Pennaiyar, the Vaigai and Tamraparani 
flow from the west eastwards, to join the Bay 
of Bengal. The Cauvery is the longest (760 
km) river in Tamil Nadu. 

Findt the districts in which the following 

riversare flowing in Tamilnadu 

Palar 

Thenpannai 

Cauvery 

Vaigai 



Tamilnadu - Rivers 


N ( 


vVv v 




palar 4 


T*>^-w^" • Thenpannai 




j v Jj-h Cauvery 


S 




1 ^~0 Vaigai < 








»*fe. 


\ ( W^^ I 


V {Tamra / 
XparanjX 


^ 





Thamaraiparani. 




POLITICAL DIVISION OF TAMIL NADU 



For the purpose of easy administration the state is divided into 32 
Districts.Go through the map and get to know the districts in TamilNadu. 



Andhra Pradesh 




Tamil Nadu is essentially an agricultural state but along with 
agriculture, other industries like cotton, chemical fertilizers, paper, 
automobiles, cycles, cement, iron and steel and railway-coach 
manufacturing industries also flourish. 

In recent years the state has shown impressive progress in the field 
of education, health and hygiene, law and order, and employment. With 
all the developments and many more to come, Tamil Nadu is surely on 
the path to become India's leading State. 




STATE SYMBOLS OF TAMIL NADU 






State emblem State Fruit 

Srivilliputhur gopuram Fig: Athi pazham 




State Bird 
Emerald Dove 
[Maragatha pura] 




State Flower 
Gloriosa Superba 
[Sen Kanthal malar] 



State Dance 
Bharatanatyam 



State Animal 
Nilgiri Tahr 
[Varai aadu] 




State Tree 
Palmyra: Panai 



State Sport 
Kabaddi 




Activities (Use Tamilnadu map) 

I. Find out the Districts in Tamil Nadu which are famous for the 
following:- 

1 . Mango 

2. Locks 

3. Jasmine Flower 

4. Pearl Fishing 

II. Find about your own district - its location, area, population, and 
important towns. 




III. On the map of Tamil Nadu mark the district to which you belong. 
Name the neighbouring districts. 
East West 



North 



South 



IV. Mark the 32 Districts in the given Tamilnadu map 




EXERCISES 



I. FILL IN THE BLANKS 




<:w;, 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



Tamil Nadu is the 



The people of Tamil Nadu speak 
Chennai is located on the 



largest state in India 



Coast 



The Southern most tip of India is 
Tamil Nadu is divided into 




districts 



II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING 
1 . Eastern Coastal Plain 
2.Madrasapattinam 
3.0oty & Coonoor 
4.KodaiKanal 
S.Mudumalai 



Nilgiris hills 
Palani hills 
Wildlife Sanctuaries 
Coromandel Coast. 
Fishery Village 




Ql- 



III. UNSCRAMBLE THE JUMBLED WORDS AND FIND OUT THE 
ANSWER 

1. Capital of Tamil Nadu ( INCNHAE ) 

2. Queen of Hill Stations (TOYO) 

3. Highest peak in South India ( NAIAUMID ) 

4. Longest river in Tamil Nadu (YACVURE) 

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING. 
1 .Name the neighbouring states of Tamilnadu. 
2. Where is Deccan Plateau located. 

3. What are the two groups of hills in Tamil Nadu. 

4. Name the hill stations of Tamil Nadu. 

V. AMAZING FACT. 

Old and buried [fossilized] dinosaur eggs have been found under a stream 
in Sendurai. Today, researchers say the aggressive carnotaurus and the 
gentle sauropods roamed in the region where Tamilnadu is located now. 




•» rarnntann iq 



carnotaurus 




sauropod 









FOLK ARTS 







Everything on this earth Is created for the benefit of man. He 
observed, the rain water falling on the ground with a rhythm, the fully ripe 
grain pods tossing their heads gently in the breeze. He saw the peacock 
dancing gracefully at the onset of monsoon, he could see some grace and 
poise even in the deadly tiger and snake. 



He imitated them in various dance forms. He used these dances to 
express his happiness when a child was bom In the family, during 
weddings, to welcome the monsoon and during harvest. 

When Do you feel like dancing? 

Which dance form you like the best? 




Fork art is the expression of cultural identity. It expresses the values of 
different groups and their sense of beauty. They Identify with each other 
and with the society at large. Tamil Nadu had developed the art of 
entertainment in three ways namely lyal (Literature) Isai (Music) and 
Nadagam (drama). These three had their roots in the rural folk art. Folk 
artists traditionally learn skills and techniques from the elders in an 
Informal community setting. 




■A-t 




HERUKOOTHU, K/JftAGATTAM, OYILATTAM, KAVADI KUMMI, KOLATTAM 

are the most celebrated form of village folk dances. 






THERUKOOTHU 
Therukoothu is the most prominent among the village folk 
arts. It is performed in open air where the people meet 
usually. The stories are taken from Puranas, Ramayana, 
Mahabharata and local folk lore. In this art from music and 
singing are given importance. 

The stories are told In such a simple way that people 
remain spell bound during the performance. 





They use very few properties like crown and armour. They use 
glittering costumes as they perform during the night under the lantern. 

The performers of Therukoothu have been providing 
useful information to the people at a time when there 
was no proper communication system. Therukoothu 
artists are living in groups in Purisai, a small village in 
Thlruvannamalal district of Tamllnadu. 

What type of stories are used in Therukoothu? 




Therukoothu had developed into stage dramas nowadays 





j£Vs&a 




KARAGATTAM 

This is the most popular folk art. 
Karagam is a small metal pot which is filled with 
grains. This pot is decorated in the shape of a 
cone with flowers and zari. Usually top of the 
cone is decorated like a parrot or a peacock. The 
performer balances this decorated pot on 
his/her head and dances to the rhythm and 
music. This is usually performed during temple 
festivals, and processions. 




OYILATTAM 

'Oyil 1 means 'Beauty', both men and women wear the same 
costume and dance gracefully. These performers wear a turban on their 
head, anklets around the leg and keep a piece of cloth in different 
colours. Madurai, Theni and Virudhunagar Districts are known for this 
art form. 





^xz 




KAVADIATTAM 

In the beginning either side of a smooth piece 
of wooden leg, the articles needed for worship are 
tied and the devotee carried it on his shoulders to 
worship God. This in course of time took the shape of 
a bow. A Kavadi performer keeps the decorated 
Kavadi on his shoulder and head. 



He balances and rolls them on his head and shoulder. This, art 
form has a special type of songs called 'Kavadi Sindu'. 



r 



» 



KUMMY 



-,- 







In the folk art kummy has a special place usually women keep an 
idol of a deity or a Kuthuvillaku' in the centre and go round it clapping their 
hands to the rhythm set for the song sung by them. This is performed 
during festivals or during social and family celebrations. Tamil poets like 
Bharathi and Bharathidasan have written a number of Kummi Songs. 





a 



KOLATTAM 





The performers of Kolattam keep colourful sticks in their hand and 
beat them rhythmically and dance to the music. 

Both men and women perform this art- 
It is a sight to see the girls wearing colourful 
dress and performing. A special type of 
Kolattam is called 'Pinnal Kolattam 1 in 
which the performers weave a plait by 
moving and changing places 
systematically. 

PURAVIYATTAM 
This is one of the oldest folk art of TamilNadu. Both men and women 
perform this. Men dress like a king and women dress like queen. It is 
called as Poikal kuthirai (dummy horse) because the performers tie wooden 
legs and get into the decorated dummy horse made for the performance. 

Facial expressions, to and fro movement of 
the horse, the swiftness with which the dance is 
performed adds beauty to this art form. This is 
one folk art which is appreciated and enjoyed 
by everybody without any age difference. 

Write few lines about your favourite folk 
dance? 




Silambattam v Bommalattam are other famous 
folk dances of Tamilnadu 



fnor 




VILLUPATTU 

This art form is used to give useful information to people. The main 
person who tells the story sits in the middle. He holds the decorated bow 
along with two slender wooden rods called veesukol. He beats the bow to 
the rhythm set for the song. Usually group of 8 perform this. They usually 
take stories from, Puranam, Ramayanam, Mahabharata or topics 
pertaining to historical events or social reforms.The most popular 
villupattu artist is Thiru.SubbuArumugam. 





ACTIVITIES 

1 .COLLECT INFORMATION ABOUT ANY FOLK ART DAN 




S.NO 


FOLK ART 


MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 


PLACE 



























2. HAVE A DEMONSTRATION OF THE VARIOUS DANCE FORMS 

IN THE CLASS. 

3. INVITE A GUEST DANCER AND ASK THEM TO PERFORM IN 

THE SCHOOL 

4. THE STUDENTS CAN ENACT THE VILLU PATTU SEQUENCE. 

5. COLLECT PICTURES OF VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
AND MAKE A SCRAPBOOK. 

6.WRITETHE NAMES OF THE FOLK ARTS RELATED TO THE 
PICTURES 




^•JL-W-V- 



%-» 





EXERCISES 

I CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 

1. Purisai village is in district. 

a)Vellore b)Thiruvannamalai c) Kanjeepuram 

2. Oyil means . 

a)beauty b) intelligence c) love 

3.The folk art that gives useful information is people 




■- ^%J 



a)Kummy b) Villupattu 




c) Kavadiattam 






II. FILL IN THE BLANKS 

1. The folk art that is performed in open air 

2. The art in which the performer dances with a decorated metal pot 
on his/her head . 

3. The dance form in which they go round in a circle clapping their 

hand rhythmically . 

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 

1. Write a few sentences about Therukoothu. 

2. Give any 5 folk art. 

3. How do they decorate a Karagam? 

4. How does a Kavadi look? 

5. Write 5 sentences about any folk art that you have witnessed 

IV. DRAW THE PROPERTIES USED FOR YOUR FAVOURITE 
FOLK DANCE . 







CRAFTS 



The rich history of culture and tradition of Tamil nadu has evolved over 
centuries. The development of Tamil culture can be seen only in the 
handicrafts of Tamilnadu. They not only speak volumes about the 
imagination and creativity of the people of this region but also improve the 
economy of the villages. These crafts are famous all over the world . 
Can you name some craft items? 




What is a craft? 

A craft is an occupation that requires a special skill. These skilled 

persons are called artisans or craftsmen. They make beautiful and 

attractive, useful things. 

Name some craft items that we need and use in our day to day life 



Most of them are ready to make from natural materials.The craftsmen are 
eco-friendly and use materials that are available in nature. Example clay, 
bamboo, coir, palm leaves, reed, jute fibre etc., 



PALMYRA [PANAI] 





BASKETS 



BAGS 






It is interesting to note that the palm leaves [olai chuvadi] 
were used to record the events in the beginning.. 

The brooms, and rakes, rope and brushes that we use today to clean 
our homes are made out of the coir from the coconut. 

COCONUT [THENNAI] 




COIR 



ROPE 







TEACUPS 



BROOM 



HANDICRAFTS 



TRY A TOY WITH COCONUT 



MATERIALS NEEDED 

© BROOM STICKS 
© BABY COCONUT 

I Insert the broom sticks into the baby 
coconut as shown in the picture, 
hold it upside down and rotate it 
gently .can you hear the sound 
tick... tick tick 



Do you know 

The word 'coir* comes from the Tamil word, 'kayiru' 

lite! 




BAMBOO [MOONGIL] 







I ft 1 






"Tl 







II 







Bamboo is a fastest growing woody plant on the earth - it can grow up 
to three feet in 24 hours. Many useful and fancy things are made out of it. 
In Tamilnadu the ancient martial art of silambam is practiced with a 
bamboo stick only. Flute, which is made out of bamboo can produce the 
most mesmarizing music. Have n't you heard the Mythological stories 
about Lord Krishna? 





CANE [PIRAMBU], and various grasses and reeds like 
[KORAI PUL]. 








Beautiful reed mats are crafted out of korai grass with cotton or silk. 
Korai grass is found in abundance along the banks of the rivers and in 
marshy areas in Tamilnadu. Earlier they used only black and red colours; 
but now with the introduction of chemical dyes a wide range of colours are 
used. Pathamadai a village in Tirunelveli district is famous for these mats. 
The innovative craftsmen of Tamilnadu have used even banana and 
pineapple fibres to make attractive products. The main centres of these 
crafts are Dharmapuri, Salem, Coimbatore, South Arcot and Tiruchirapalli 
districts. 




JUTE [SANAL] 




MUD [CLAY] 




Items made from mud have contributed to our 

culture, housing and roads, since ancient times. 

Bricks have been made in Tamilnadu for thousands of 

years. Perhaps the making of bricks is one of the earliest 

crafts known to man! 

Can you think of one such item? 




POTTERY 




ttswf 








j. 








, 



The distinctive feature of pottery lies in its highly 
artistic shapes, original colours in glazes and excellent 
ornamentation. The red and black earthen ware of Vellore 
(North Arcot district) and the black pottery of Karukurichi 
(Tirunelveli District) are known for their beauty. 

Thanjavur dolls of Tamilnadu are very famous world over. 




%.v 




STONE 

Stone has been a great source of beauty. 

Can you think of one monument made out of stone? 

I Chola stone carvings (Tanjore) Pallava stone carvings(Mahabalipuram) 

-;.-_.-■_-. 
r ±v ■ 

j 

^^^— ■*■■■»■■— 

Today, granite carving is done only around Mamallapuram and 
Chingleput. Soapstone or maakal carving is found in the region between 
Pondicherry and Cuddalore and around Salem. 

WOODEN CRAFTS 

Wood too has been used in various ways. The bold forms and the 
minute details add a style to this workmanship. Tables with the top 
covered with floral motifs, the parrots or panels with epic scenes are the 
most outstanding examples of this type of craft. 





■■■ 




Jmfft 



THANJAVURART 

One beautiful handicraft of Tamil Nadu is the Thanjavur painting. This 
art flourishes in Thanjavur. Thin sheets of gold and semi precious stones 
are used, along with the primary colours. 






KANCHEEPURAM 

Kancheepuram is famous for its intricate weaving of silk and cotton 

sarees and materials. Many weavers have a loom in their houses. It takes 

almost 35-40 days to weave a single sari. 




COTTON TEXTILES 

Cotton materials are also produced in handloom. There are many 

centers in Tamilnadu which produces hand-woven cotton materials The 

famous centers are Coimbatore, Ami, Thanjavur, Erode, Karur, Madurai 

etc. 




The craft tradition of Tamilnadu is a valuable and growing one. It is 
learning to adapt itself to changing technologies and modern 
developments. We now mix polyester with our handlooms, and make 
'polycot' sarees! We also mix plastic with our coir ropes, to make them 
strong, and also to recycle plastic. Look around and learn more! 







EXERCISES 

I.ANSWERTHE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 
1 .What is a craft? 

2.What are most craft items made of? 
3.What are some of the craft items made from palmyra? 
4. Name some of the ways that coconut fibre can be used 
S.Name 5 bamboo, cane and grass products. 

II. WHO AM I? 
1 .1 am also called the Silk City. K 





Mamallapuram 
Vellore 
Ami 
Salem 




2. 1 am a famous place for handlooms. C 

3. 1 am a traditional painting. T 

4They make mats with me P 

III MATCH THE FOLLOWING 

1 . Red and black pottery 

2. Cotton textiles 

3. Soapstone carving 

4. Shore Temple 
IV. FILL UP THE BLANKS 

1- , 

2. The crafts of Tamilnadu add 

3.. is one major raw material in making fibre products. 

4. Numerous sculptures, magnificent proportions, thousand-pillared 
mandapas and pillars of stone can be seen in temples 



<->j^. 



m 



and 



are the things made out of jute 
and to our lifestyles. 




-f% 



:z* 



of theChola period. 

ACTIVITIES : _ , 

r Make students aware of the rich living tradition of crafts in Tamilnadu 

today, 
i^ Ask students to collect news about the various new things that 

craftspeople have produced, {example: clay refrigerator] 
J± Students are asked to talk about the craft that they have brought. 

(material used, the place where it is made, the materials required to 

make it etc.) 




LET US RECALL 

What comes to your mind when you think of each lesson? 

Write in the given space . 















CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION 

Congratulations for learning all 
the lessons of class IV Social studies 
with interest and enthusiasm. 

Name of the student : 
Name of the school :